is an essential nutrient for humans and certain other animal species, inwhich it functions as a vitamin. In living organisms, this vitamin is an anti-oxidant,since it protects the body against oxidative stress. It is also a cofactor in at least eightenzymatic reactions, including several collagen synthesis reactions that cause themost severe symptoms of scurvy when they are dysfunctional.
is a common enzymatic cofactor in mammals used in thesynthesis of collagen. Ascorbate is a powerful reducing agent capable of rapidlyscavenging a number of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Freshwater teleost fishes alsorequire dietary
in their diet or they will get scurvy. The most widelyrecognized symptoms of
deficiency in fishes are scoliosis, lordosis anddark skin coloration. Freshwater salmonids also show impaired collagen formation,internal/fin haemorrhage, spinal curvature and increased mortality. If these fishes arehoused in seawater with algae and phytoplankton, then vitamin supplementationseems to be less important, it is presumed because of the availability of other, moreancient, antioxidants in natural marine environment.In humans,
is essential to a healthy diet as well as being a highly effectiveantioxidant, acting to lessen oxidative stress; a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase in plants (APX is plant specific enzyme); and an enzyme cofactor for the biosynthesis of many important biochemicals.
acts as an electron donor for importantenzymes.2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, (DCPIP) is a blue chemical compound used as a redoxdye. Oxidized DCPIP is blue, reduced DCPIP is colorless. DCPIP is a redox dyecommonly used as a monitor of the light reactions in photosynthesis because it is anelectron acceptor that is blue when oxidized and colorless when reduced. It is part of the Hill reagents family. DCPIP is commonly used as a substitute for NADP
. Thedye changes color when it is reduced, due to its chemical structure. The rate of photosynthesis light-dependent reaction can be measured with this property of DCPIP, because one of the stages of the light reaction is an electron transport chainthat normally ends with the reduction of NADP
. When DCPIP is present, the lightreaction also reduces it. The amount of DCPIP reduced can be found by measuringthe solution's light transmittance with a spectrophotometer.