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Table Of Contents

Transmission routes
Natural history
CDC classification system
Epidemiology
Conclusion
References
2. Acute HIV-1 Infection
Introduction
Immunological and virological events during acute HIV-1 infection
Signs and symptoms
Diagnosis
Treatment
3. HIV Testing
How to test
HIV antibody diagnosis
Problem: The "diagnostic window"
HIV nucleic acid testing (NAT)
Test results
Special case: Babies born to HIV-infected mothers
Special case: occupational HIV exposure (see also chapter on PEP)
What is relevant in practice?
Useful Internet sources relating to HIV testing
4. Pathogenesis of HIV-1 Infection
1. The structure of HIV-1
2. The HIV replication cycle
3. HIV and the immune system
5. ART 2007
1. History
2. Overview of antiretroviral agents
3. ART 2007/2008: The horizon and beyond
4. Therapeutic Goals
5. When to start HAART
6. Which HAART to start with?
7. When to change HAART
8. How to change HAART
9. Salvage therapy
10. When to stop HAART
11. Monitoring
12. Costs, Prevention, Compliance
6. Management of Side Effects
Gastrointestinal side effects
Hepatotoxicity
Renal problems
Neurological side effects
CNS disorders
Haematological changes
Increased bleeding episodes
Allergic reactions
Lactic acidosis
Avascular necrosis
Osteopenia/osteoporosis
Specific side effects
7. Lipodystrophy Syndrome
Background
Clinical manifestation
HAART, lipodystrophy syndrome and cardiovas- cular risk
Pathogenesis
Therapy and Prevention
8. Mitochondrial Toxicity of Nucleoside Analogs
Pathogenesis of mitochondrial toxicity
Clinical manifestations
Monitoring and diagnosis
Treatment and prophylaxis of mitochondrial tox- icity
9. HIV Resistance Testing
Assays for resistance testing
Interpretation of genotypic resistance profiles
Summary
Resistance tables
10. Pregnancy and HIV
HIV therapy in pregnancy
11. Antiretroviral Therapy in Children
Characteristics of HIV infection in childhood
Diagnosis of HIV infection < 18 months of age
Diagnosis of HIV infection > 18 months of age
When to initiate antiretroviral therapy
General considerations for treatment of HIV-in- fected children
Strategy
Classes of Antiretrovirals
Drug interaction
Monitoring of therapy efficacy and therapy failure
Change of therapy
Supportive therapy and prophylaxis
12. Opportunistic Infections (OIs)
OIs in the HAART era
Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP)
Cerebral toxoplasmosis
CMV retinitis
Candidiasis
Tuberculosis
Atypical mycobacteriosis (MAC)
Herpes simplex
Cryptococcosis
Salmonella septicemia
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)
Wasting syndrome
Rare OIs
13. Kaposi’s Sarcoma
Signs, symptoms and diagnosis
Prognosis and staging
Local therapy
Chemotherapy
Immunotherapy
Monitoring and follow-up care
14. Malignant Lymphomas
Systemic non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL)
Primary CNS lymphoma
Hodgkin’s disease (HD)
Multicentric Castleman's Disease (MCD)
15. The New HIV Patient
The initial interview
The Laboratory
The examination
16. Vaccinations and HIV
Practical approach to vaccinations
Details on individual vaccines
17. Traveling with HIV
Travel preparations
Antiretroviral therapy (ART)
General precautions
Vaccinations
Malaria prophylaxis
Entry regulations and travel insurance
Special risks
HIV and HBV coinfection
19. GBV-C infection
GBV-C: Harmless or rather a friendly virus?
Proposed pathomechanisms: One question and multiple answers
How to deal with GBV-C-viremia in HIV-infection?
20. HIV and Renal Function
Nephroprotection
Clinical manifestation/diagnosis of nephropathy
Routine tests for renal impairment
HIV-associated nephropathy (HIV-AN)
Post-infectious glomerulonephritis
Principles of therapy of glomerulonephritis
Renal safety of antiretroviral therapy
Dosage of antiretrovirals in renal insufficiency
OIs and renal insufficiency
21. HIV-associated Skin and Mucocutane- ous Diseases
Dermatological examination and therapy in HIV- infected patients
HAART: Influence on (muco-) cutaneous diseases
Conclusions
Most frequent HIV-associated skin diseases
Skin and mucocutaneous disease related to antiretroviral drugs
22. HIV and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Syphilis
Gonorrhea
Chlamydia infection
Chancroid
Condylomata acuminata
23. HIV and Cardiac Diseases
Coronary artery disease (CHD)
Congestive heart failure
Pericardial effusion
Cardiac arrhythmias
Valvular heart disease
Further cardiac manifestations
24. HIV-associated Pulmonary Hyperten- sion
Etiology, pathogenesis, classification
Therapy
Conclusion for clinicians
References and Internet addresses
25. HIV and Pulmonary Diseases
Anamnesis
Pulmonary complications
26. HIV-1 associated Encephalopathy and Myelopathy
HIV encephalopathy
HIV-associated myelopathy
27. Neuromuscular Diseases
Polyneuropathy and polyradiculopathy
Myopathy
28. HIV and Psychiatric Disorders
Major depression
Psychotic disorders
Acute treatment in psychiatric emergency
29. Sexual Dysfunction in HIV/AIDS
Definitions
Etiology of sexual dysfunction in HIV/AIDS
Ongoing research
Diagnosis of sexual dysfunction
Therapy for sexual dysfunction
30. HIV and Wish for Parenthood
Pre-conceptual counseling
Male HIV infection
Management of PEP
32. Drug Profiles
3TC – Lamivudine
Abacavir (ABC
Acyclovir
Amphotericin B
Doxorubicin (liposomal)
Efavirenz
Emtricitabine (FTC)
Erythropoietin
Ethambutol
Etravirin (TMC-125)
Fluconazole
Fosamprenavir
Foscarnet
Ganciclovir
G-CSF
Indinavir
Interferon alfa 2a/2b
Interleukin-2
Isoniazid (INH)
Itraconazole
Kivexa™ (USA: Epzicom™)
Lopinavir
Maraviroc
Nelfinavir
Nevirapine
Pentamidine
Pyrimethamine
Raltegravir (MK-0518)
Ribavirin
Rifabutin
Rifampin (or rifampicin)
Ritonavir
Saquinavir
Sulfadiazine
T-20 (Enfuvirtide)
Tenofovir
Tipranavir
Trizivir™
Truvada™
Valganciclovir
Voriconazole
33. Drug-Drug Interactions
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Hiv Medicine 2007

Hiv Medicine 2007

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Published by Dare-Wells Laiza

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Published by: Dare-Wells Laiza on Jun 10, 2011
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