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Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques: Linear and Non-Linear model

Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques: Linear and Non-Linear model

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It is well known fact that nutrition is the most important factor for animal growth, reproduction and proper maintenance.
It is well known fact that nutrition is the most important factor for animal growth, reproduction and proper maintenance.

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Published by: Milling and Grain (formerly GFMT) on Jun 10, 2011
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Grain & Feed Milling Technology is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2010 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1466-3872
Digital Re-print - May | June 2011
Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques: Linear and Non-Linear model
t is well known fact that nutritionis the most important factorfor animal growth, reproduc-tion and proper maintenance.
Dietary information is essential for con-ducting research and performing experi-ments. The diet should supply all the essen- tial nutrients and adequate amount of energy  to satisfy requirement for body growth, wellhealth conditions and animal yields.Another important aspect of diet is tomaintain environmental and flesh quality.A number of feeding standards have beendefined and practiced for a long time.Conventional and non-conventional feedresources are used to formulate the diet for ruminant livestock in developing countries. While formulating the diet, tendency is toreject the poor quality feeds that are avail-able in vast quantities.The objective is to use locally availablefeed resources effectively by applying basicnutrition principles to optimise animal yield,health and weight. The alternative approachis to use feeding standards that would ensure that the production system matches theavailable resources.The diets should be formulated so as itcontain all essential nutrients in adequatequantities. The diet should be supplied in aform, which is easily accepted by the cultivat-ed animal and should have little adverse envi-ronmental impact. The strategy of choosing the feed ingredients is based on locally available feed resources and it requires theunderstanding of the relative roles and nutri-ent needs of the two-compartment systemrepresented by the microorganisms in therumen and the host animal.
Levels of nutrients
A lot of work has been done in the areaof finding different levels of nutrient ingredi-ent in diet and formulation. On the basis of percentage of nutrient level, components areincluded in animal diet.No one feed ingredient can supply all of  the nutrients and energy need for the bestgrowth. Diet should contain a mixture of feedstuffs, vitamin and mineral premixes thatprovide the right essential nutrients as wellas the energy necessary to use the nutrients.The amount of each feed ingredientdepends on several factors, including nutrientrequirements, ingredient cost, availability of each ingredient, and processing character-istics.For formulating diets for experimentalpurposes, it is necessary that all ingredientsare controlled for all essential nutrients.But, under practical conditions, such acontrol is difficult to set forth and mostly restricted to rapid proximate compositionanalyses. Specific attention should however be given to obtain guarantees for absence of anti-nutritional factors.Diet given to laboratory animal may beof two types: Natural Ingredientsor Purified Ingredients. Naturalingredient diets support reproduc- tion, growth, and maintenance of laboratory animals. Purified dietsare made of refined ingredients tominimise nutrient variation, certainenvironmental contaminants and the presence of active compounds naturally occurring in plants.Generally, purified diets are used for dietformulation as they can be manipulated tocontain very high or low levels of specific mac-ro-nutri-ents (thatis, 60 per-cent of kcal fromfat or sixpercentprotein)and micro nutrients (that is, two percentcalcium or vitamin A deficient).Two types of formulations are used indiets; fixed formulation and variable formula- tion. Fixed formulations are used for thediets where the ingredient composition isknown and is not altered. It decreases theamount of variation in dietary constituents that could jeopardise experimental results or have a negative influence on the well beingof animals.To assure nutrient specifications, ingredi-ent standards for nutrient concentrations areestablished prior to the procurement of theingredients. Dietary contaminants are con- trolled by procuring ingredients according tostrict contaminant standards and by testingingredients for contaminants of concern.Variable formulations may allow for changes in ingredient composition or con-centration. These changes in formulationscould lead to the incorporation of lower quality, less costly ingredients, where unde-sirable, non-assayed components, such phy- toestrogens, may be introduced.Variable formulated diet makes neces-sary adjustments according to raw materialmacronutrient variability, which could causesignificant variation in the finished product.The largest volume of laboratory animal dietproduced is comprised of agricultural com-modities like corn, wheat, plant by-products,soybean meal, oats, alfalfa meal, and animalderived ingredients such as fish meal andmeat and bone meal.
There are different methods toformulate animal diet
Diet formulation includes balance mix- ture of ingredients which are economically 
by Dr Pratiksha, Assistant Professor, School of Applied Sciences, Gautam BuddhaUniversity, Greater Noida, India
Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques:
Linear and Non-Linear model
Example 1:
Example to formulate a linear programming model for the diet formulation.
Example 2:
The ingredients have the following nutrient values and cost -
Ingredient 1 (gram/kg)1409040----50Ingredient 2(gram/kg)200120203060
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sustainable and provides nutrient and energy requirements of a given species for a givenresponse.The reliability of knowledge on the quality of ingredients and the constraints; both havean impact on the quality of diet formulation.Reliable and updated database on chemicalcomposition, physical characteristics and bio-availability information on feed ingredients isessential for diet formulation.Including all the information diet is for-mulated to achieve the objective of leastcost with adequate nutrients. There are three important aspects while considering the diet formulation, cost, nutrient level andingredients limit.Different kinds of conventional methods to formulate the diets are:Trial-and-error method• Two by two matrix method• Square methodSimultaneous equation method• Least cost formulationLinear programming methodTwo-by-two matrix method solves two nutrient requirements using twodifferent feed ingredients.A two-by-two matrix is set and a series of equations are established to find the solutionof the problem. Square method is relatively easy and simple to work on. It is used withonly two nutrient ingredients. To use thismethod, level of nutrient being computedshould be intermediate between the nutrientconcentrations of the two feed ingredientsbeing used.This method is used to satisfy only onenutrient requirement. This method has lim-ited use as it is based on certain limitations.Simultaneous equation method is alsohas limited use, because it is used for twonutrient ingredient combination diet. It usessimple algebraic method to solve theseequations.Trial and error method is generally used to formulate rations for swine and poultry.This method tries different diets and manipu-lates it until the nutrient requirements of theanimal are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a ration that meets all the nutrient requirements of the animal. Butin practice, it is really not possible to use italways, as it is a time and money consumingmethod.Linear programming method is widely used for animal diet formulation.It is a method to determine the leastcost combination of ingredientsusing a series of mathemati-cal equations. This methodprovides a number of pos-sible solutions to each seriesof equations, but when the factor of costis applied, there can only be one least costcombination.This method is in practice for a long time to give solutions to the problem of diet formulation considering the cost factor associated with it. Before using this techniquefor ration formulation, certain informationshould be available about the importantnutrient ingredient to be included in diet.First, all available ingredients should belisted with associated cost factor. Tablesrepresenting the nutrient composition of 
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The application of non-linear program-ming to the field of animal nutrition isgrowing day-by-day. The main goal in makingfeedstuffs is to increase profits of animalproduction by increasing the nutritional valueof the feedstuff or a mixture of feedstuffs.Feedstuffs containing 20 percent crudeprotein or more are considered proteinsupplements. Protein supplements may beclassified as animal or plant proteins. Animalproteins are generally considered to behigher quality than plant proteins.The main plant protein sources usedin catfish feeds are oilseed meals, such assoybean meal, cottonseed meal, and peanutmeal. Some other oilseed meals could beused but are not generally available on a timely basis and at an economical cost per unit of protein. Table 1 represents levels of crude protein in different meals.
Vitamins and minerals
Vitamin and mineral premixes are gener-ally added to feeds. They provide more vita-mins and minerals than what is needed for growth to make up for any losses that may occur during feed manufacture or storage.They are made from high quality ingre-dients, using forms of vitamins and mineralswhich animal can readily digest.The rate of growth and the efficiency with which the nutrients are utilized mainly depend on three factors, which may be used to maximize it8. Accounting all these facts,weight gain of an animal depends upon:Digestible crude proteinTotal digestible nutrientDigestible dry matter Metabolic weight is used as a base for whole of the calculations. Moir had earlier reported that a level between 200 and 300K.Cal DE per Kg0.75 is generally encounteredwhile studying the intake in growing animals.A non-linear model is defined as:To maximizeSubject to:I=1,2,3,…………….m, j=1,2,3,……….l Where f(x), g(x) and h(x) are functionsdefined on, X is a subset of and x is a vector of n components.
Optimising feed for weight gain
Non-linear programming is used to max-imise the body weight of sheep under thegiven experimental conditions and satisfyingNRC feeding standards (Pratiksha, 2006).To sum up, an effort has been made togive a new dimension to the already existingmulti-dimensional non-linear models and itsuse to formulate a real-world problem of optimising the feed in terms of weight gainof the animal and to solve it as well.This objective supports the all over effect of nutrient ingredients simultaneously on the animalyield and weight gain of an animal. It has already been accepted that non-linear programming hasa great deal of future prospects as it has directpractical utility in the field of animal nutrition.A nutrition program was developed for high producing dairy herds to attain efficientand profitable levels of milk production[Sklan, D. and Dariel, I., 1993].A model was developed to represent theefficiency of nutrient use and its relationship toprofitability on dairy farms [Tedeschi, L. O, 2004].A cost analysis spreadsheet and validation of  that spreadsheet on milking and custom heifer operations was developed [Guevara V.R., 2004].Lead factors are used in computerised rationformulation programs developed at VirginiaTech to increase milk production above a herdor group average for which total mixed rationsare formulatedfor group feed-ing [Stallings, C.C; Mcgilliard, M.L]. Chance con-strained program-ming is used toformulate com-mercial feeds for animals [Britt, J.S; Thomas, R. C;Speer, N. C; Hall, M. B., 2003].A stochastic-linear program Excel work-book was developed that consisted of twoworksheets illustrating linear and stochasticprogram approaches.Both approaches used the Excel Solver add-in. Excel spreadsheet was set up so that thecalculated margin of safety (MOS) value, accord-ing to the requested probability, was the samefor both the linear and stochastic programs.A multiple-objective programming (MOP)model was applied to the feed formulationprocess with the objectives of minimisingnutrient variance and minimising rations cost.A study was conducted to introduce adual model in an original linear program toobtain the shadow prices of resources that take part in optimisation, in feed formulation.The shadow prices of nutrients resourcedshowed degrees of influence of a diet's leastcost when increasing or decreasing expecteddiet nutrient ‘b’ values of a diet.The higher the shadow prices of a nutri-ent resource, the more obvious its influenceon least cost. When the shadow price of akind of resource equals to zero, it means thatreaching this nutrient value does not have aninfluence on a special diet least cost withina particular ‘b’ value. This paper also dis-cusses the development of direction of feedformulation-optimizing techniques in China[Xiong BenHai, Luo QingYao, Pang ZhiHong].The importance of Non-linear ProgrammingApplications is growing due to rapidly increas-ing sophistication of managers and operationresearchers in implementing decision orientedmathematical models, as well as to the growingavailability of computer routines capable of solving large-scale nonlinear problems. While formulating a mathematical modelrelated to real life problems, many differentsituations lead to non-linear formulation of constraints and objective function.feed ingredients should be analysed properly.Nutrient levels are estimated from a variety of sources including published commodity compendium data, wet chemistry testing of raw materials and finished product testing.Nutrient losses due to heat treatment andmechanical processes during manufacturing,or post-production effects of irradiationor autoclaving are not routinely taken intoconsideration in these estimates.After this nutrient requirement for theparticular species and ingredient limitationshould be given proper consideration. After collecting all the necessary information, amathematical model is derived with Linear Programming specifications. Now method of LPP is used to solve it and it provides solu- tion for the feed mixture.Let us consider an example to formulatea linear programming model for the dietformulation. Suppose 1 kg of feed mix mustcontain a minimum quantity of each of four nutrients as in Example 1:Now objective is to find the amounts of active ingredients and filler in one kg of feedmix. Now it is considered as one kg of feedmix is made up of three parts - ingredient 1,ingredient 2 and filler so let:x1 = amount (kg) of ingredient 1 inone kg of feed mixx2 = amount (kg) of ingredient 2 inone kg of feed mixx3 = amount (kg) of filler in one kg of feed mixwhere x1
0, x2
0 and x3
0Now the nutrient constraints are set upaccording to given information asAnd the objective function is to minimise:.It represents formulation of a completelinear diet model.
Well-balanced ration
A number of models have been derivedfor different objective of study and con-strains.The LP model can be solved for a com-plicated set of nutrient requirements to givea relatively well-balanced ration [VandeHaar and Black, M. J., 1991].The principal objective in the applicationof LP to feed formulation is the productionof least cost rations that will produce satisfac- tory results.
Table 1:
Crude protein (CP)
CP levelIngredients
<25%Whole cereals, pulses, oil seeds25-50%Oil seed meals>50%Animal by-products (meat meal, blood meal), plantprotein concentrates, isolates, extractives
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fd milliG tcholoGmay - June 2011 | 13

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