t is well known fact that nutritionis the most important factorfor animal growth, reproduc-tion and proper maintenance.
Dietary information is essential for con-ducting research and performing experi-ments. The diet should supply all the essen- tial nutrients and adequate amount of energy to satisfy requirement for body growth, wellhealth conditions and animal yields.Another important aspect of diet is tomaintain environmental and flesh quality.A number of feeding standards have beendefined and practiced for a long time.Conventional and non-conventional feedresources are used to formulate the diet for ruminant livestock in developing countries. While formulating the diet, tendency is toreject the poor quality feeds that are avail-able in vast quantities.The objective is to use locally availablefeed resources effectively by applying basicnutrition principles to optimise animal yield,health and weight. The alternative approachis to use feeding standards that would ensure that the production system matches theavailable resources.The diets should be formulated so as itcontain all essential nutrients in adequatequantities. The diet should be supplied in aform, which is easily accepted by the cultivat-ed animal and should have little adverse envi-ronmental impact. The strategy of choosing the feed ingredients is based on locally available feed resources and it requires theunderstanding of the relative roles and nutri-ent needs of the two-compartment systemrepresented by the microorganisms in therumen and the host animal.
Levels of nutrients
A lot of work has been done in the areaof finding different levels of nutrient ingredi-ent in diet and formulation. On the basis of percentage of nutrient level, components areincluded in animal diet.No one feed ingredient can supply all of the nutrients and energy need for the bestgrowth. Diet should contain a mixture of feedstuffs, vitamin and mineral premixes thatprovide the right essential nutrients as wellas the energy necessary to use the nutrients.The amount of each feed ingredientdepends on several factors, including nutrientrequirements, ingredient cost, availability of each ingredient, and processing character-istics.For formulating diets for experimentalpurposes, it is necessary that all ingredientsare controlled for all essential nutrients.But, under practical conditions, such acontrol is difficult to set forth and mostly restricted to rapid proximate compositionanalyses. Specific attention should however be given to obtain guarantees for absence of anti-nutritional factors.Diet given to laboratory animal may beof two types: Natural Ingredientsor Purified Ingredients. Naturalingredient diets support reproduc- tion, growth, and maintenance of laboratory animals. Purified dietsare made of refined ingredients tominimise nutrient variation, certainenvironmental contaminants and the presence of active compounds naturally occurring in plants.Generally, purified diets are used for dietformulation as they can be manipulated tocontain very high or low levels of specific mac-ro-nutri-ents (thatis, 60 per-cent of kcal fromfat or sixpercentprotein)and micro nutrients (that is, two percentcalcium or vitamin A deficient).Two types of formulations are used indiets; fixed formulation and variable formula- tion. Fixed formulations are used for thediets where the ingredient composition isknown and is not altered. It decreases theamount of variation in dietary constituents that could jeopardise experimental results or have a negative influence on the well beingof animals.To assure nutrient specifications, ingredi-ent standards for nutrient concentrations areestablished prior to the procurement of theingredients. Dietary contaminants are con- trolled by procuring ingredients according tostrict contaminant standards and by testingingredients for contaminants of concern.Variable formulations may allow for changes in ingredient composition or con-centration. These changes in formulationscould lead to the incorporation of lower quality, less costly ingredients, where unde-sirable, non-assayed components, such phy- toestrogens, may be introduced.Variable formulated diet makes neces-sary adjustments according to raw materialmacronutrient variability, which could causesignificant variation in the finished product.The largest volume of laboratory animal dietproduced is comprised of agricultural com-modities like corn, wheat, plant by-products,soybean meal, oats, alfalfa meal, and animalderived ingredients such as fish meal andmeat and bone meal.
There are different methods toformulate animal diet
Diet formulation includes balance mix- ture of ingredients which are economically
by Dr Pratiksha, Assistant Professor, School of Applied Sciences, Gautam BuddhaUniversity, Greater Noida, India
Synthesis of animal feed formulation techniques:
Linear and Non-Linear model
Example to formulate a linear programming model for the diet formulation.
The ingredients have the following nutrient values and cost -
Ingredient 1 (gram/kg)1409040----50Ingredient 2(gram/kg)200120203060
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sustainable and provides nutrient and energy requirements of a given species for a givenresponse.The reliability of knowledge on the quality of ingredients and the constraints; both havean impact on the quality of diet formulation.Reliable and updated database on chemicalcomposition, physical characteristics and bio-availability information on feed ingredients isessential for diet formulation.Including all the information diet is for-mulated to achieve the objective of leastcost with adequate nutrients. There are three important aspects while considering the diet formulation, cost, nutrient level andingredients limit.• Different kinds of conventional methods to formulate the diets are:• Trial-and-error method• Two by two matrix method• Square method• Simultaneous equation method• Least cost formulation• Linear programming method• Two-by-two matrix method solves two nutrient requirements using twodifferent feed ingredients.A two-by-two matrix is set and a series of equations are established to find the solutionof the problem. Square method is relatively easy and simple to work on. It is used withonly two nutrient ingredients. To use thismethod, level of nutrient being computedshould be intermediate between the nutrientconcentrations of the two feed ingredientsbeing used.This method is used to satisfy only onenutrient requirement. This method has lim-ited use as it is based on certain limitations.Simultaneous equation method is alsohas limited use, because it is used for twonutrient ingredient combination diet. It usessimple algebraic method to solve theseequations.Trial and error method is generally used to formulate rations for swine and poultry.This method tries different diets and manipu-lates it until the nutrient requirements of theanimal are met. This method makes possible the formulation of a ration that meets all the nutrient requirements of the animal. Butin practice, it is really not possible to use italways, as it is a time and money consumingmethod.Linear programming method is widely used for animal diet formulation.It is a method to determine the leastcost combination of ingredientsusing a series of mathemati-cal equations. This methodprovides a number of pos-sible solutions to each seriesof equations, but when the factor of costis applied, there can only be one least costcombination.This method is in practice for a long time to give solutions to the problem of diet formulation considering the cost factor associated with it. Before using this techniquefor ration formulation, certain informationshould be available about the importantnutrient ingredient to be included in diet.First, all available ingredients should belisted with associated cost factor. Tablesrepresenting the nutrient composition of
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