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CESNETtechnicalreport number17/2001
December 15, 2001
This report brings overview of QoS specification in IP networks. It focuses onthe measurement of QoS related characteristics and introduces the method of multipoint passive measurement.
IP, QoS, active measurement, passive measurement, SLS, time synchronization
1 Introduction
Quality of Services (QoS) is one of the greatest challenges in IP networking andin Internet generally. The aim of QoS is to satisfy different service requirementsby sharing the same infrastructure. QoS offers the ability to define qualitative(e.g. class of service) or quantitative (e.g. bandwidth) attributes of networkservice provided. Definitely, consistent and predictable behaviour of the com-munications channels is expected.Network monitoring and measurement is increasingly regarded as an essentialfunction for developing and supporting high-quality network services, building andimprovinginnovativenetworkingtechnologies,andanalysinginfrastructuretrends and user behaviour. For supporting QoS-enabled services, traffic engi-neering and network operation, monitoring is needed to provide the feedbackto operators or management systems in an efficient fashion. Monitoring is alsocrucial in the development, optimisation and testing of innovative networking technologies by providing the required knowledge on the infrastructure charac-teristics, traffic phenomena and system/network performance.While effort in this area has resulted in a wide variety of hardware and softwaremonitoringtools,demandforfasterandmoreflexiblemonitoringandmeasurintechnology is continuously growing far beyond what can be currently offered.The report is organized as follows. Section 2 introduces basic methods of QoSimplementation. Section 3 describes Service Level Specification as an interface
between service user and service provider. Section 4 contains definition of QoS parameters according to the IETF and ITU-T. Current standardization andimplementation activities of Classes of QoS are described in Section 5. Section6 summarizes current methods of measurement in IP networks. Our method of QoS oriented measurement is described in Section 7.
2 QoSinIPTechnolog
In this section we shall discuss two approaches of QoS specification in IP tech-nology: Intserv and Diffserv. Although QoS is not primary consideration of MPLS, we note here MPLS too because it introduces an effective and scalableidentification of particular data flow which is basic condition for offering QoS.
2.1 IntegratedServices
Intserv(Integrated Services)[RFC1633]extentthe basicservice modelofIPandintroduces new services to provide fine-grained assurances to individual flows:
[RFC2211]offersthesamequalityofservicelike the unloaded or lightly loaded network with the Best Effort service.Networkresourcesarereservedforeachparticulardataflowandthereforecommitted flows do not overload data network nodes. This service doesnot guarantee any quantitative parameter.
Guaranteed Service
[RFC2212] offers quantitative upper limit onlatency to flows conforming to a traffic specification. The principle is toreserve the bandwidth and the queue of known length for each data flowin each network node. This service is similar to a dedicated wire.IntservintroducestheprincipleofconnectivitytotheconnectionlessIPtechnol-ogy. To establish a channel, signaling is essential. Usually, Intserv is associatedwith the RSVP signalling protocol [RFC2205]. As Intserv requires state informa-tion about any flow in each network router, scalability is a problem.Intserv is not widely used and it seems not to be perspective framework for QoSin IP networks. For this reason it will not be further considered in this paper.
2.2 DifferentiatedServices
Diffserv (Differentiated Services) [RFC2475] is a layer 3 framework to providecontrol to aggregates of flows. As flows are recognized only at edge devices of domain (ingress and egress nodes), no state information per flow is required inother routers inside the Diffserv domain. Flows are classified at the edges, andthen they are conditioned and aggregated. Each IP packet obtains a DiffservCodepoint (DSCP), which identifies a per-hop behaviour (PHB). As the size of DSCP is 6 bits, at most 64 different PHB exist and 32 of them are subject of standardization. Three types of PHB are currently defined:
class selector PHB
[RFC2474] subsumes the IP precedence modelof the former ToS octet according [RFC791] and [RFC1122].
CESNET technical report number 17/2001 2
Assured Forwarding 
(AF) [RFC2597] offers different levels of for-warding for packets belonging to an aggregated flow. Network sources areallocated independently for each AF group. 4 AF classes are identified(Premium, Gold, Silver and Bronze), each with 3 levels of drop prece-dence. Not all of 12 AF classes have to be implemented.
Expedited Forwarding 
(EF) [RFC2598] guarantees tightly boundeddelay, delay variation and loss ratio for conforming IP packets. The im-plementation requires that any router satisfies the condition, that theaggregate input flow does not exceed minimum output bandwidth. Froman end-user viewpoint, EF emulates the virtual circuit.
2.2.1 DSCodepointField
DS Codepoint occupies the second octet of IP header, which was formerlycalled ToS (Type of Services). The history of this octet interpretation maps theevolution of different services offering in IP technology.In early [RFC791] is introduced the structure of ToS with 3 bit of precedencelevel and others 3 bits (called DTR bits) for specifying normal or better value of delay, throughput and reliability. While[RFC1122] adopts the definitionof 3 bitsof precedence, [RFC1349] introduces 4 new types of services: minimize delay,maximize throughput, maximize reliability and minimize monetary cost. Thisconcept is incompatible with Diffserv. Figure 1 and Figure 2 show differencebetween the original ToS octet and DS codefield.
Figure 1:
Original ToS Octet 
Figure 2:
Diffserv Codepoint Field
CESNET technical report number 17/2001

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