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DGBanhatti1 {Cosmological number density n(z) in depth z from p(V/V_m) distribution}

DGBanhatti1 {Cosmological number density n(z) in depth z from p(V/V_m) distribution}

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Published by Dilip G Banhatti
Using distribution p(V/V_m) of V/V_m rather than just mean in V/V_m-test leads directly to cosmological number density n(z). Calculation of n(z) from p(V/V_m) is illustrated using best sample (of 76 quasars) available in 1981, when method was developed. This is only illustrative, sample being too small for any meaningful results.
Using distribution p(V/V_m) of V/V_m rather than just mean in V/V_m-test leads directly to cosmological number density n(z). Calculation of n(z) from p(V/V_m) is illustrated using best sample (of 76 quasars) available in 1981, when method was developed. This is only illustrative, sample being too small for any meaningful results.

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Published by: Dilip G Banhatti on Jun 11, 2011
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09/20/2013

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Bull. Astr. Soc. India (0000)
00
, 000–000
Cosmological number density
n
(
z
)
in depth
z
from
 p
(
V/V 
m
)
distribution
Dilip G. Banhatti
School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021
2009 May 21
Abstract.
Using distribution
p
(
V/V 
m
) of 
V/V 
m
rather than just mean
V/V 
m
in
V/V 
m
-test leads directly to cosmological number density
n
(
z
). Cal-culation of 
n
(
z
) from
p
(
V/V 
m
) is illustrated using best sample (of 76 quasars)available in 1981, when method was developed. This is only illustrative, samplebeing too small for any meaningful results.
Keywords
:
V/V 
m
– luminosity volume – cosmological number density –
V/V 
m
distribution
Luminosity-distance and volume
For cosmological populations of objects, distance is measured by (monochromatic) lumi-nosity distance
ν
(
z
) (at frequency
ν 
), as function of redshift
z
of object. Similarly, vol-ume of sphere passing through object and centered around observer is (4
π/
3)(
c/H 
0
)
3
v
(
z
)(where speed of light c and Hubble constant
0
together determine linear scale of uni-verse). Both
ν
(
z
) and
v
(
z
) are specific known functions of z for given cosmologicalmodel.
Calculation of limiting redshift
z
m
For source of (monochromatic radio) luminosity
L
ν
, flux density
ν
, (radio) spectral index
α
(
ν
ν 
α
), and redshift
z
,
L
ν
= 4
πℓ
2
ν
(
α,z
)
ν
. For survey limit
0
, value of limitingredshift
z
m
is given by
2
ν
(
α,z
)
/ℓ
2
ν
(
α,z
m
) =
0
/S 
ν
=
s
, 0
s
1, for sources of redshift
e-mail:dilip.g.banhatti@gmail.com
 
2
Dilip G. Banhatti 
z
and spectral index
α
. For the simplest case, [
ν
(
α,z
)
/ℓ
ν
(
α,z
m
)]
2
=
s
has single finitesolution
z
m
for given
α
,
z
and
ν
,
0
. Different values
z
m
correspond to different
L
ν
(
α
).
Relating
n
(
z
)
to
p
(
V/V 
m
)
Let
(
z
m
)
dz
m
represent number of sources of limiting redshift between
z
m
and
z
m
+
dz
m
in sample covering solid angle
ω
of sky. Then 4
πN 
(
z
m
)
is total number of sourcesof limit
z
m
per unit
z
m
-interval. Since volume availbale to a source of limit
z
m
is
(
z
m
) = (4
π/
3)(
c/H 
0
)
3
v
(
z
m
), number of sources (per unit
z
m
-interval) per unit volumeis [3
(
z
m
)
](
0
/c
)
3
(1
/v
m
), where
v
m
=
v
(
z
m
). Let
n
m
(
z
m
,z
) be number of sourcesper unit volume per unit
z
m
-interval at redshift
z
. Then
n
(
z
) =
 
z
dz
m
n
m
(
z
m
,z
), and
n
m
(
z
m
,z
) = [3
(
z
m
)
](
0
/c
)
3
(1
/v
(
z
m
))
 p
m
(
v
(
z
)
/v
(
z
m
)) for 0
z
z
m
, where
p
m
(
x
)is distribution of 
x
=
V/V 
m
for given
z
m
. For
z
z
m
,
n
m
(
z
m
,z
) = 0, since sources withlimiting redshift
z
m
cannot have
z > z
m
. To get
n
(
z
) for all
z
m
-values, integrate over
z
m
:
n
(
z
) = (3
)(
0
/c
)
3
 
z
dz
m
[
(
z
m
)
/v
(
z
m
)]
 p
m
(
v
(
z
)
/v
(
z
m
)).
Scheme of calculation
Any real sample has maximum
z
max
for
z
m
. So
n
(
z
z
max
) = 0. In fact, lifetimesof individual sources will come into consideration, as well as structure-formation epochat some high redshift (say,
z >
10). Thus
n
(
z
) calculation will give useful results onlyupto redshift much less than
z
max
. Formally writing
z
max
instead of 
for upper limit,
n
(
z
) = (3
)(
0
/c
)
3
z
max
 
z
dz
m
[
(
z
m
)
/v
(
z
m
)]
 p
m
(
v
(
z
)
/v
(
z
m
)), for 0
z
z
max
. To applyto real samples, this must be converted to sum. Divide
z
m
-range 0 to
z
max
into
k
equalintervals, each =
z
max
/k
=
z
. Mid-points are
z
j
= (
 j
1
/
2)∆
z
= [(
 j
1
/
2)
/k
]
z
max
.Calculate
n
(
z
) at these points:
n
(
z
j
). Coverting integral to sum, (
ω/
3)(
c/H 
0
)
3
n
(
z
j
) =Σ
ki
=
j
[
i
/v
(
z
i
)]
 p
(
x
ij
), where
x
ij
=
v
(
z
j
)
/v
(
z
i
).
Illustrative calculation in 1981
Wills and Lynds (1978) have defined carefully sample of 76 optically identified quasars.We use this sample only to illustrate derivation of 
n
(
z
) from
p
(
x
) =
p
(
V/V 
m
). We useEinstein-de Sitter cosmology, that is,
q
0
=
σ
0
= 1
/
2,
k
=
λ
0
= 0 or (1
/
2
,
1
/
2
,
0
,
0) worldmodel in von Hoerner’s (1974) notation, for which (
0
/c
2
)
2
ν
(
α,z
) = 4(1 +
z
)
α
/
[(1 +
z
)
1
/
2
1]
2
and (
0
/c
)
3
v
(
z
) = 8[1
(1 +
z
)
1
/
2
]
3
. For each quasar,
z
m
is calculatedby iteration with initial guess
z
for
z
m
. Values of 
z
,
z
m
are then used to calculate
v
(
z
),
v
(
z
m
) and hence
x
=
V/V 
m
. All 76
V/V 
m
-values are used to plot histogram. Goodapproximation for
p
(
x
) is
p
(
x
) = 2
x
, which is normalized over [0,1]. The limiting redshifts

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