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Published by Dilip G Banhatti

Using distribution p(V/V_m) of V/V_m rather than just mean in V/V_m-test leads directly to cosmological number density n(z). Calculation of n(z) from p(V/V_m) is illustrated using best sample (of 76 quasars) available in 1981, when method was developed. This is only illustrative, sample being too small for any meaningful results.

Using distribution p(V/V_m) of V/V_m rather than just mean in V/V_m-test leads directly to cosmological number density n(z). Calculation of n(z) from p(V/V_m) is illustrated using best sample (of 76 quasars) available in 1981, when method was developed. This is only illustrative, sample being too small for any meaningful results.

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Bull. Astr. Soc. India (0000)

00

, 000–000

Cosmological number density

n

(

z

)

in depth

z

from

p

(

V/V

m

)

distribution

Dilip G. Banhatti

∗

School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021

2009 May 21

Abstract.

Using distribution

p

(

V/V

m

) of

V/V

m

rather than just mean

V/V

m

in

V/V

m

-test leads directly to cosmological number density

n

(

z

). Cal-culation of

n

(

z

) from

p

(

V/V

m

) is illustrated using best sample (of 76 quasars)available in 1981, when method was developed. This is only illustrative, samplebeing too small for any meaningful results.

Keywords

:

V/V

m

– luminosity volume – cosmological number density –

V/V

m

distribution

Luminosity-distance and volume

For cosmological populations of objects, distance is measured by (monochromatic) lumi-nosity distance

ℓ

ν

(

z

) (at frequency

ν

), as function of redshift

z

of object. Similarly, vol-ume of sphere passing through object and centered around observer is (4

π/

3)(

c/H

0

)

3

v

(

z

)(where speed of light c and Hubble constant

H

0

together determine linear scale of uni-verse). Both

ℓ

ν

(

z

) and

v

(

z

) are speciﬁc known functions of z for given cosmologicalmodel.

Calculation of limiting redshift

z

m

For source of (monochromatic radio) luminosity

L

ν

, ﬂux density

S

ν

, (radio) spectral index

α

(

S

ν

∝

ν

−

α

), and redshift

z

,

L

ν

= 4

πℓ

2

ν

(

α,z

)

S

ν

. For survey limit

S

0

, value of limitingredshift

z

m

is given by

ℓ

2

ν

(

α,z

)

/ℓ

2

ν

(

α,z

m

) =

S

0

/S

ν

=

s

, 0

≤

s

≤

1, for sources of redshift

∗

e-mail:dilip.g.banhatti@gmail.com

2

Dilip G. Banhatti

z

and spectral index

α

. For the simplest case, [

ℓ

ν

(

α,z

)

/ℓ

ν

(

α,z

m

)]

2

=

s

has single ﬁnitesolution

z

m

for given

α

,

z

and

S

ν

,

S

0

. Diﬀerent values

z

m

correspond to diﬀerent

L

ν

(

α

).

Relating

n

(

z

)

to

p

(

V/V

m

)

Let

N

(

z

m

)

dz

m

represent number of sources of limiting redshift between

z

m

and

z

m

+

dz

m

in sample covering solid angle

ω

of sky. Then 4

πN

(

z

m

)

/ω

is total number of sourcesof limit

z

m

per unit

z

m

-interval. Since volume availbale to a source of limit

z

m

is

V

(

z

m

) = (4

π/

3)(

c/H

0

)

3

v

(

z

m

), number of sources (per unit

z

m

-interval) per unit volumeis [3

N

(

z

m

)

/ω

](

H

0

/c

)

3

(1

/v

m

), where

v

m

=

v

(

z

m

). Let

n

m

(

z

m

,z

) be number of sourcesper unit volume per unit

z

m

-interval at redshift

z

. Then

n

(

z

) =

∞

z

dz

m

n

m

(

z

m

,z

), and

n

m

(

z

m

,z

) = [3

N

(

z

m

)

/ω

](

H

0

/c

)

3

(1

/v

(

z

m

))

p

m

(

v

(

z

)

/v

(

z

m

)) for 0

≤

z

≤

z

m

, where

p

m

(

x

)is distribution of

x

=

V/V

m

for given

z

m

. For

z

≥

z

m

,

n

m

(

z

m

,z

) = 0, since sources withlimiting redshift

z

m

cannot have

z > z

m

. To get

n

(

z

) for all

z

m

-values, integrate over

z

m

:

n

(

z

) = (3

/ω

)(

H

0

/c

)

3

∞

z

dz

m

[

N

(

z

m

)

/v

(

z

m

)]

p

m

(

v

(

z

)

/v

(

z

m

)).

Scheme of calculation

Any real sample has maximum

z

max

for

z

m

. So

n

(

z

≥

z

max

) = 0. In fact, lifetimesof individual sources will come into consideration, as well as structure-formation epochat some high redshift (say,

z >

10). Thus

n

(

z

) calculation will give useful results onlyupto redshift much less than

z

max

. Formally writing

z

max

instead of

∞

for upper limit,

n

(

z

) = (3

/ω

)(

H

0

/c

)

3

z

max

z

dz

m

[

N

(

z

m

)

/v

(

z

m

)]

p

m

(

v

(

z

)

/v

(

z

m

)), for 0

≤

z

≤

z

max

. To applyto real samples, this must be converted to sum. Divide

z

m

-range 0 to

z

max

into

k

equalintervals, each =

z

max

/k

= ∆

z

. Mid-points are

z

j

= (

j

−

1

/

2)∆

z

= [(

j

−

1

/

2)

/k

]

z

max

.Calculate

n

(

z

) at these points:

n

(

z

j

). Coverting integral to sum, (

ω/

3)(

c/H

0

)

3

n

(

z

j

) =Σ

ki

=

j

[

N

i

/v

(

z

i

)]

p

(

x

ij

), where

x

ij

=

v

(

z

j

)

/v

(

z

i

).

Illustrative calculation in 1981

Wills and Lynds (1978) have deﬁned carefully sample of 76 optically identiﬁed quasars.We use this sample only to illustrate derivation of

n

(

z

) from

p

(

x

) =

p

(

V/V

m

). We useEinstein-de Sitter cosmology, that is,

q

0

=

σ

0

= 1

/

2,

k

=

λ

0

= 0 or (1

/

2

,

1

/

2

,

0

,

0) worldmodel in von Hoerner’s (1974) notation, for which (

H

0

/c

2

)

ℓ

2

ν

(

α,z

) = 4(1 +

z

)

α

/

[(1 +

z

)

1

/

2

−

1]

2

and (

H

0

/c

)

3

v

(

z

) = 8[1

−

(1 +

z

)

−

1

/

2

]

3

. For each quasar,

z

m

is calculatedby iteration with initial guess

z

for

z

m

. Values of

z

,

z

m

are then used to calculate

v

(

z

),

v

(

z

m

) and hence

x

=

V/V

m

. All 76

V/V

m

-values are used to plot histogram. Goodapproximation for

p

(

x

) is

p

(

x

) = 2

x

, which is normalized over [0,1]. The limiting redshifts