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EU2_2000_ {Early Universe & Present Large-Scale Structure - Part 2: Dark matter, Inflation & Cosmography}

EU2_2000_ {Early Universe & Present Large-Scale Structure - Part 2: Dark matter, Inflation & Cosmography}

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Published by Dilip G Banhatti
This is the second part of a two-part series of articles on the early phases of the universe and their relation to its presently observed large-scale structure. In the first part, the history of the universe within the big bang model from the Planck epoch to the present was set out briefly, touching on the observed large-scale structure in the universe at the end. In this second part, the evidence for dark matter on various scales is first reviewed. A brief nontechnical description of inflation (i.e., exponential expansion in the earliest phases of big bang) is then given. An inflationary big bang model, together with enough non-baryonic (dark) matter to give flat space, solves the flatness & horizon problems, yet predicting the right light element abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis. Finally the various cosmographic methods used to quantitatively specify the large-scale structure in the universe from astronomical surveys and the result(s) obtained are described. At the end, the main points made in both the parts (of this pair of articles) are recapitulated.
This is the second part of a two-part series of articles on the early phases of the universe and their relation to its presently observed large-scale structure. In the first part, the history of the universe within the big bang model from the Planck epoch to the present was set out briefly, touching on the observed large-scale structure in the universe at the end. In this second part, the evidence for dark matter on various scales is first reviewed. A brief nontechnical description of inflation (i.e., exponential expansion in the earliest phases of big bang) is then given. An inflationary big bang model, together with enough non-baryonic (dark) matter to give flat space, solves the flatness & horizon problems, yet predicting the right light element abundances from big bang nucleosynthesis. Finally the various cosmographic methods used to quantitatively specify the large-scale structure in the universe from astronomical surveys and the result(s) obtained are described. At the end, the main points made in both the parts (of this pair of articles) are recapitulated.

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Published by: Dilip G Banhatti on Jun 11, 2011
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Early
UniverseandPresentLarge-ScaleStructure
PART2:
DARKMATTER,INFLATION
ANDCOSMOGRAPHY
D.G.
BANHAITI
SchoolofPhvsics,
Madufai-Kama'fajUniversity"
Ma'durai625021
ABSTRACT
This
is
secondpariofa
two-pan
seriesofarticles
0'11
theearlyphasesoftheuniverseandtheirrelation
10
its
presentlyobservedlarge-scalestructure.In.thefirstpart.
t
thehistory
of
theuniversewithinthebigbangmodelfromthePlancKepochtothepresentwas
setoutbriefly,
touching
071
theobservedlarge-scale
structure
ill
the
universeatthe
end.
11'1hissecondpart.theevidence/ordarkmatteronvariousscalesisfirst
reviewed.
AbriefnOli-technicaldescriptionofinflation(i.e.exponentialexpansionintheearliestphasesofbig
-I
bang)isthengiven.Aninflationarybigbangmodel,rogetherwithenoughnonbaryonicdark
matter
l'O
giveflatspace,solvestheflat-nessandhorizonproblems.yet
predictingtherightlight
elementabundancesfrombigbangnucleosynthesis.Finally,thevariouscos-mographicmethodsusedtooquantitativelyspec.ifythelarge-scale
structure
ill
theuniverse/rom
astronomical
SUi"'\I'eys
andtheresult
obtainedaredescribed.AItheend...themainpointmadeinboth
the
partsarerecapuukued.
PhySiCS
EdlJcation
July-
September
2000
!1'(2)
1,61-70
 
DarkMatter
Indescribing
me
large-scalestructure
in
theuni-verse,onemustdistinguishbetweenthedistribu-
tionof
light
andthedistributionofmass.All
astronomicalsurveysthroaghtheelectromagneticspectrumdelineatethedistributionoflight.
On.ly
themotionorvelocityfieldofgalaxiesprobesthegravitationalfieldandleadsdirectlytothedistri-burionofmass.whichiscalleddynamicalmass.Dynamicalmassrhusincludesallgravitatingmass,luminousordark,
i.e,
itisessentiallythetotalmass.Critical[)eos:ityToevaluatetheoverallaveragegravitationalfieldofanyoneoracombinationoftheconstituentsoftheuniverse,
its
contribution
to
thetotaldensityismeasuredasthefractionofacertaincriticalden-sit)!.Thiscriticaldensityisgivenby
PCT
=
3IflrlS'![G.
where
Hoisthe
Hubbleconstantspecify-ingthe(present)expansionrateoftheuniverse,andG
'is
thegravitationalconstant.
If
thetotalmass(plusenergy)density
PI01
=
Per.
theunive:seexpandstoinfinitytoreachzerorateofexpansionasymptotically,andspaceisfiatandopen.If
PIO!
>
Per'
spaceisclosedandcurved,andtheuniversecontractsafterreachingamaximumsize,Finally,
if
Plill
<
Per.
spaceisopenandcurved,andthe~-verseexpandsto
infinity
at
<II
nonzeroterminal
rate.
Thesethreepossibilitiesmayalsobe
charac-
terizedbythedimensionlessratio
n
=
PlliPcr;
n
<
Igivingopen(curved)space,
n
==
lflat(open)spaceand
Q
>
1dosed(curved)space,(See,e.g.,Figure!ofref[2).)
n
is
canedthe
densitypa-rameter.
DynamicalMassonVariousScalesOnscalesfromgalaxies
10
groupstodusterstosu-perclustersandsoon,dynamicalmassin~e,:edfromthevelocityfieldismorethanthevisiblemassinferredfromthemass-to-lightratios.Theobservedlightfromanastrophysicalsystem(say.astarcluster)leadsto
its
massthroughitsmass-to-lightratio,asdeterminedfromtheemissionproc-essesoperative
in
thesystem(thermounclear
fu-
sionandsubsequentradiativetransfer,
for
ourstarduster)andobservationsofmanysimilarsystems(through,.
in
ourexample,Hertzsprung-Russelldia-grams).Thediscrepancybetweendynarnic~l
(i..
e.,total)massandlLlsiblemassmcreases
with
In-
creasing:scale.
J
ThediscoveryofNeptuneatthelocationpre-dictedbydynamicalcalculationsbased
OD
theob-servedmotionofUranusmarksanearlyinstanceofhowthedynamicsofvisiblemattercansignalthepresenceandmotionof
darkmatter.
Similarreasoning,indicatinganunknowninnermostpl~et('Vulcan'),basedontheexcessprecessionofMer-cary'sorbitaroundtheSun,turnedouttohebar-rensincesearchesforVulcanfailedanduseof
,
.
generalrelativity
in
placeofNewtoniandynamics
explainedthe
discrepancy
morenaturally.
SolarNeighbourhoodMovingbeyondthesolarsystem,ofthe300knownsta~within
10
pcoftheSun,61arewithin5pc.Thisgivesthestellarnumberdensityof
0.12
pc-
3
upto5pcand0.065pe
3
from5to10pc,clearlysignallingthatstarsaretoofainttodetectfurtheraway.sincethenumberdensityin
the
solarneighbourhoodisexpectedtobeuniformonaver-age.Adynamicalestimateofthemassisobtained
formthevelocity
dispersionofthestarsnormaltotheGalacticdisk.Thecorresponding
mass-co-light
ratio
(MIL)ear
ngbd-
afewtimestbesolarvalue
(M;3/Le)'
theunitadoptedtomeasuremass-to-lightratios.SpiralGalaxiesAnestimateof
the
massofa(spiral)diskgalaxyisobtained
by
determiningits
rotationcurve,
i.e.
therunofthecircularspeed
Ve
asafunctionofthedis-tance
r
fromthegalacticcentre.Theextentofthe
disk
in
theradioband(measuringneutralhydrogenat
A.lI
em)isafewtimesitsextent
in
theopticalband,anvc(r)
can
bemeasuredto,say,30to40
162
PhysicsEducationJulySeptember2000
 
kpcintheradioratherthanlOkpc(optical).Ifallthemassofthegalaxyislocatedwithinsomera-dius.
'Vc(r)
beyondthatradiusshouldshowKe-plerianbehaviour
veer)
=
(GMlr)lf2
oc:
r
/2,
i.e.,
I3i
slowdecrease,However.therotationcurvesareobservedtosaturatetoaconstantvalue,say,
'Vl)
(uptoafew
100
km.s'"),Thisobserved
vc(r)
=
Va
indicatesalinearlyincreasingmass
M(r)
=r
vVG.
correspondingtomassdensity
per)
(dM/dr)/41trl
0:;
r2.
Thisismuchslowerthantheobservedexponentialfaninthedisksurfacebrighmess,parametrized,e.g.
by
B(r)
=
B(O)exp[-
(rlro)1/4].
Thusthemass-to-lightratio
MIL
in-
creasesoutwardinadisk
galaxy,
andanadditionalcomponentofnonlumincusordarkmatterin
8i
sphericalhalowithdensityp,tr)ec1/(1
+
r2/~ore)isneededtoreproducetheobservedrotationcurve
I1r(r).
TheoverallMiLfora(spiral)diskgalaxy
is~lOMJL
o'
EllipticalGalaxiesforellipticalgalaxies,massesareestimated
by
thevirialtheoremrelatingthekineticandpotentialen-ergies
T
and
U
oftheconstituentstars,assumedtobe
in
adynamicalsteadystate[i.e.neitherexpand-ingnorcollapsing).Thus,
2T
+
U
=
0,with
T
=
MV212
and
U
=
-GAP/2r
gives
M=z..,lr/G.
whichcanbeestimatedfromthevelocitydispersion
v2
andsizer.
MIL
forellipticalsissimilartothatforspirals,viz.~
lOMJL
0
Somewhatlarger
MIL
val-uesareobtainedfromdynamicalcalculationsforbinarygalaxiesandsmallgroupsofgalaxies.GalaxyClustersVinaltheoremisalsoappliedtorichgalaxyclus-ters,relatingthevelocitydispersionamongthegal-axies
(JIl)!12-
10
3
km.s")andtheclustersize(-IMpc)togive
MIL-200MJL
e,
muchlargerthanforindividualgalaxies.Thusrichclustersofgalax-ies,containdarkmatterontheclusterscaleinaddi-tion
10
that
in
individuelgalaxyhalos.Therearenostructureslargerthanrichgalaxydusters,whosemasscanbeconvenientlyreckonedthroughmass-
so-light
ratios.Thesemass-to-lightratiosonthevariousscalesaresummarized
in
Table1.
Table1.Mass-tlight
ratioson
variousscalesScale
MIL
lin
units
of
Mol/Lol
Solarne.ighlbourhood
>
1SpiralgalaxesEllipti.calg'slaxesBinariesandsmall
gr10ups
Galax.y
clusters
-'0
-10
>
10
!
100
On
scaleslargerthanrichclusters(upto50Mpc)anduptotheHubblescale,viz.,thescaleofthewholeobservableuniverse(afewGpc),thedensityparameter
n""
piPer
(seeabove)isusedtomeasuretheamountofmatter.
(2
isexaminedthroughcosmologicalteststodeterminetheback-groundgeometry.Ontheotherhand.directmeth-odsrelatethevelocityfieldtothegravitationalfieldasdeterminedfromthelocal
variationsin
thenumberdensityofgalaxies
in
agivenskysurvey.
Box1.
D,ark..
MaHer:
Baryonh:
andNonbaryonlcIn
dynamical
studiesonvarious
scales(see
lexij,
tlhe
dam
matter
Inastrophysi-calsystemssignalsItspresence
by
Itsgravltatlo1allnfluenceonthemotionotnearbymatter.MassoftheluminousmatterfallsshortofthemassdynamIcallynecessarytoexplainthemotions.TheamountofshortfallIsduetothedarkmatter.However,thereIsanotherjndependeru
way
toestimatetheamountof
matt.er
Inthe
unl,verse.
"fhelight
elements
1
H,reHe,
4He
and7Uareformed11'11
rlmor-
::LH)
phYSICSEducation..July-
September
2000
163

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