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Rahul Datta & D G Banhatti 0809.1972v4 {Mass Distrbn Rotn Curves & Gravity Theories}

Rahul Datta & D G Banhatti 0809.1972v4 {Mass Distrbn Rotn Curves & Gravity Theories}

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Published by Dilip G Banhatti
{Comparison of mass density profiles of galaxies of varying sizes based on some gravity theories from observed galaxy rotation curves and the need for dark matter.} We present an analysis of the rotation curves of five galaxies of varying galactic radii: NGC6822 (4.8 kpc), Large Magellanic Cloud (9 kpc), The Milky Way (17 kpc), NGC3198 (30 kpc) and UGC9133 (102.5 kpc). The mass and mass density profiles of these galaxies have been computed using the scientific computing s/w package MATLAB taking the already available velocity profiles of the galaxies as the input, and without considering any Dark Matter contribution. We have plotted these profiles after computing them according to three different theories of gravity (and dynamics):
Newtonian (black line), Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND) (green line) and Vacuum Modified Gravity (red line). We also consider how the profile due to the
Newtonian theory would modify if we take into account a small negative value of the Cosmological Constant (5 x 10-56 cm-2 from theory) (blue line). Comparing these mass and mass density profiles, we try to form an idea regarding what could be a realistic theory of gravity and whether we need Dark Matter to explain the results.
{Comparison of mass density profiles of galaxies of varying sizes based on some gravity theories from observed galaxy rotation curves and the need for dark matter.} We present an analysis of the rotation curves of five galaxies of varying galactic radii: NGC6822 (4.8 kpc), Large Magellanic Cloud (9 kpc), The Milky Way (17 kpc), NGC3198 (30 kpc) and UGC9133 (102.5 kpc). The mass and mass density profiles of these galaxies have been computed using the scientific computing s/w package MATLAB taking the already available velocity profiles of the galaxies as the input, and without considering any Dark Matter contribution. We have plotted these profiles after computing them according to three different theories of gravity (and dynamics):
Newtonian (black line), Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND) (green line) and Vacuum Modified Gravity (red line). We also consider how the profile due to the
Newtonian theory would modify if we take into account a small negative value of the Cosmological Constant (5 x 10-56 cm-2 from theory) (blue line). Comparing these mass and mass density profiles, we try to form an idea regarding what could be a realistic theory of gravity and whether we need Dark Matter to explain the results.

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Published by: Dilip G Banhatti on Jun 11, 2011
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Mass Distribution, Rotation Curves and Gravity Theories
 
Rahul Datta
 Space Applications Centre, Indian Space Research Organization,Ahmedabad-380015, India
Dilip G. Banhatti
School of Physics, Madurai-Kamaraj University, Madurai 625021, India[Prepared for “Dark Matter Conference”, 9 - 11 Feb 2009, Arcetri, Florence, Italy.]ABSTRACT{Comparison of mass density profiles of galaxies of varying sizes based on somegravity theories from observed galaxy rotation curves and the need for dark matter.}We present an analysis of the rotation curves of five galaxies of varying galactic radii:NGC6822 (4.8 kpc), Large Magellanic Cloud (9 kpc), The Milky Way (17 kpc),NGC3198 (30 kpc) and UGC9133 (102.5 kpc). The mass and mass density profiles of these galaxies have been computed using the scientific computing s/w packageMATLAB taking the already available velocity profiles of the galaxies as the input,and without considering any Dark Matter contribution. We have plotted these profilesafter computing them according to three different theories of gravity (and dynamics):Newtonian (black line), Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND) (green line) andVacuum Modified Gravity (red line). We also consider how the profile due to theNewtonian theory would modify if we take into account a small negative value of theCosmological Constant (5 x 10
-56
cm
-2
from theory) (blue line). Comparing these massand mass density profiles, we try to form an idea regarding what could be a realistictheory of gravity and whether we need Dark Matter to explain the results.
Keywords
: disk galaxy rotation curves, galaxy mass, mass density profile, dark matter, Newtonian theory, MoND, Vacuum Modified Gravity, negative cosmologicalconstant
MOTIVATION
“Missing mass” was first inferred via dynamics for clusters of mostly ellipticalgalaxies using virial theorem. It was soon found to be dynamically present, although itwas the light that was missing, same as in clusters, on even single galaxy scale,especially for spirals, most naturally taken to be balanced between rotation andgravity. Assigning mass-to-light ratios on various scales via putative astrophysicallight emission processes on those scales,
 Dark Matter 
, which gravitated (and henceparticipated in dynamics), but emitted little or no light, became firmly established inastrophysics and cosmology.In this paper, we consider the single galaxy scale, and use five galaxies, either disk spirals or dynamically similar galaxies, to examine the connection between massdistribution and rotation curve in a few representative models, without assuming anyDark Matter, on scales from 5 kpc (size of the smallest of the five galaxies) to 100 kpc(size of the largest of the 5).
 
 
CALCULATION / COMPUTATION SCHEME
We first define the geometry and the notation for our calculation (computed usingMATLAB s/w package). The galaxy disk is assumed axisymmetric.FIG.1: Top View of the Galaxy. The semicircular arcs representthe rings constituting the disc of the galaxy. The other half forming the full circular arc is implied.FIG.2: Edge-on view of a fundamental segment of a ring in an axisymmetric disk galaxy. Cf FIG.1.Definitions & notation (referring to FIGs. 1 & 2):pc = parsec, 3.08568E13 kms, 3.26151 light yearspi = 3.14159265dr = radial thickness of a ring, pc
 
dth = (pi /180) radiansth = angle at the galaxy center, between galaxy radial line to testmass and radial line to ring segment, radiansalpha = angle subtended at the test mass by the center of thefundamental segment mass and the center of the galaxy,radiansbeta = angle subtended at the test mass by the center of thefundamental segment mass and the elemental thicknessdz of the fundamental segment mass, radianspytks = multiplier to change v(pcs/yr) to v(kms/sec)= 9.7778E5 km/pc*yr/secmsun = mass of our sun, 1.989E33 gmshtype indicates type of the galaxyr(i) = radius to centerline circle of ith ring= rm - dr/2 pcrr(i) = radius to rod used to represent fundamental segment massfor the ith ring= rm – (dr / 2) *
 
(rm - 0.575 dr) / (rm - dr / 2) pcNr = number of ringsG = gravitational constant, 4.498E(-15) pc
3
 /(msuns*yr
2
)rm = radius to outer edge of a ring, pcrmax = galaxy maximum/rim radius, pcrt = radius to test mass from galaxy center, pcsthe test mass is located at the outer edge of each ringh(i) = galaxy thickness at radius r corresponding to ith ring, pcmr(i) = mass contained only inside the ith ring, msunsMr(i) = galaxy mass contained within the outer edge of the ithring, i.e., sum of masses inside each ring starting fromthe galaxy center upto the ith ring, msunsM = galaxy total mass, msunsdv(i) = volume of a fundamental segment of the ith ring, pc
3
= h(i)*r(i)*dth*drrv(i) = volume of the ith ring, pc
3
= 360*dv(i)tvol = galaxy total volume, pc
3
 rho(i) = density of the ith ring, msuns/pc
3
 rhoav = average density of galaxy= M / tvol, msuns/pc
3
 SMD(i) = surface mass density of ith ring, msuns / pc
2
SMDav = average surface mass density of galaxy= M / (
π
 
rmax
2
) msuns / pc
2
rSMD(i) = rd(i) *
 
SMD(i)v(i) = computed orbital speed at test mass radius rt at the outeredge of ith ring, kms/secvkrim = sqrt(GM / rmax) , the Kepler speed at the rim, kms/secvm = measured speed, km/secvmax = maximum measured speed, km/secmrnor(i) = mr(i) / MMrnor(i) = Mr(i) / Mhd(i), rd(i) = (h(i), r(i)) / rmax

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