7.4 - Translation
7.4.1 - Explain that each tRNA molecule is recognised by a tRNA-activating enzyme that binds a specific amino acid to the tRNA, using ATP for energy
Each amino acid has a specific
. Before they are used in translation, amino acids are attached to a matching tRNA molecule. On the 3
end of the molecules, the base sequence
appears, which binds to the amino acid with the aid of the activating enzyme. The tRNA molecules recognise the correct amino acid due the variation in their shape. They will match to a certain enzyme. The attachment of the amino acid requires ATP for the enzyme to induce the reaction. The anticodon is three bases long, and uses complementary base pairing to match to the code on the mRNA molecule. Note that the DNA code is degenerate, since a single amino acid may bind to multiple tRNA molecules.
7.4.2 - Outline the structure of ribosomes, including protein and RNA composition, large and small subunits, three tRNA binding sites and mRNA binding sites
Ribosomes are primarily made up of two parts - the small subunit and the large subunit. The small subunit has the binding site for the mRNA molecule, whilst the large subunit has three binding sites for tRNA molecules. These three binding sites are called the E, P and A sites. Ribosomes are
for the translation of mRNA into a polypeptide. One ribosome may catalyse the translation of many different mRNA molecules.