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Formation Pressure v2-1

Formation Pressure v2-1

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ABNORMAL FORMATIONPRESSURE ANALYSIS
Version 2.1
 
February 2001Dave HawkerCorporate Mission
To be a worldwide leader in providing drilling and geological monitoring solutions to the oil and gasindustry, by utilizing innovative technologies and delivering exceptional customer service.
 
 
DATALOG: ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE ANALYSIS, Version 2.1, issued February 2001DATALOG: ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE ANALYSIS, Version 2.1, issued February 2001 1
CONTENTS
 
1. INTRODUCTION................................................................................................................................................4 2. PRESSURES & GRADIENTS............................................................................................................................5
 
2.1 H
YDROSTATIC
P
RESSURE
..................................................................................................................................5
 
2.2 F
ORMATION
P
RESSURE
.....................................................................................................................................8
 
2.2.1 Direct Pressure Measurements.................................................................................................................9
 
2.2.1.1 Repeat Formation Test.......................................................................................................................9
 
2.2.1.2 Drill Stem Test...................................................................................................................................9
 
2.2.2 Indirect Pressure Measurements.............................................................................................................10
 
2.2.2.1 Kick Shut-In Pressures.....................................................................................................................10
 
2.2.2.2 Connection Gases.............................................................................................................................11
 
2.3 F
RACTURE
P
RESSURE
.....................................................................................................................................12
 
2.3.1 Leak Off Tests..........................................................................................................................................13
 
2.4 O
VERBURDEN
S
TRESS
.....................................................................................................................................16
 
2.4.1 Determination of Bulk Density................................................................................................................17 
 
2.4.1.1 Bulk Density from Cuttings..............................................................................................................18
 
2.4.1.2 Bulk Density from Sonic Logs.........................................................................................................19
 
2.4.2 Calculation of Overburden Gradient......................................................................................................20
 
2.5 B
ALANCING
W
ELLBORE
P
RESSURES
...............................................................................................................24
 
2.5.1 Mud Hydrostatic .....................................................................................................................................24
 
2.5.2 Equivalent Circulating Density...............................................................................................................25
 
2.5.3 Surge Pressures.......................................................................................................................................26 
 
2.5.4 Swab Pressures.......................................................................................................................................26 
 
2.5.5 Kick Tolerance........................................................................................................................................28
 
2.5.5.1 Kick Tolerance, worked example.....................................................................................................30
 
2.6 S
UMMARY OF
F
ORMULAE
................................................................................................................................33 
3 OCCURRENCES OF ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE.................................................................35
 
3.1 U
 NDERPRESSURED FORMATIONS
.....................................................................................................................35
 
3.1.1 Reductions in Confining Pressure or Fluid Volume ...............................................................................35
 
3.1.2 Apparent Underpressure.........................................................................................................................35
 
3.2 O
VERPRESSURE
EQUIREMENTS
.....................................................................................................................37
 
3.2.1 Overpressure Model................................................................................................................................37 
 
3.2.1.1 Permeability.....................................................................................................................................37
 
3.2.1.3 Fluid Type........................................................................................................................................38
 
3.3 C
AUSES
O
F
O
VERPRESSURE
............................................................................................................................39
 
3.3.1 Overburden Effect...................................................................................................................................39
 
3.3.2 Tectonic Loading ....................................................................................................................................41
 
3.3.2.1 Faulting............................................................................................................................................41
 
3.3.2.2 Deltaic Environments.......................................................................................................................42
 
3.3.2.3 Diapirism/Domes.............................................................................................................................43
 
3.3.3 Increases in Fluid Volume ......................................................................................................................44
 
3.3.3.1 Clay Diagenesis................................................................................................................................44
 
3.3.3.2 Gypsum Dehydration.......................................................................................................................45
 
3.3.3.3 Hydrocarbon or Methane Generation...............................................................................................45
 
3.3.3.4 Talik and Pingo Development..........................................................................................................45
 
3.3.3.5 Aquathermal Expansion...................................................................................................................46
 
3.3.4 Osmosis...................................................................................................................................................46 
 
 
DATALOG: ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE ANALYSIS, Version 2.1, issued February 2001DATALOG: ABNORMAL FORMATION PRESSURE ANALYSIS, Version 2.1, issued February 2001 2
3.3.5 Hydrostatic causes..................................................................................................................................47 
 
3.3.5.1 Hydraulic Head................................................................................................................................47
 
3.3.5.2 Hydrocarbon Reservoirs....................................................................................................................47 
4 OVERPRESSURE DETECTION......................................................................................................................48
 
4.1 B
EFORE
D
RILLING
...........................................................................................................................................48
 
4.2 R 
EAL
-T
IME
I
 NDICATORS
.................................................................................................................................49
 
4.2.1 Rate of Penetration.................................................................................................................................49
 
4.2.2 Drilling Exponent....................................................................................................................................50
 
4.2.3 Corrected Drilling Exponent...................................................................................................................51
 
4.2.4 Trend/Shift Changes and Limitations......................................................................................................53
 
4.2.4.1 Lithology..........................................................................................................................................53
 
4.2.4.2 Bit Type and Wear...........................................................................................................................55
 
4.2.4.3 Fluid Hydraulics...............................................................................................................................56
 
4.2.4.4 Significant Parameter Changes.........................................................................................................56
 
4.2.4.5 Directional Drilling..........................................................................................................................56
 
4.2.5 Torque, Drag and Overpull .....................................................................................................................57 
 
4.2.6 Tripping Indicators.................................................................................................................................57 
 
4.3 L
AGGED
I
 NDICATORS
......................................................................................................................................58
 
4.3.1 Background Gas Trends..........................................................................................................................58
 
4.3.1.1 Sealed Overpressure.........................................................................................................................59
 
4.3.1.2 Transitional Overpressure................................................................................................................59
 
4.3.2 Connection Gas.......................................................................................................................................61
 
4.3.3 Temperature............................................................................................................................................66 
 
4.3.3.1 Geothermal Gradient........................................................................................................................66
 
4.3.3.2 Flowline Temperature......................................................................................................................67
 
4.3.3.3 Delta T.............................................................................................................................................68
 
4.3.3.4 Trends..............................................................................................................................................69
 
4.3.4 Analysis of Drilled Cuttings....................................................................................................................70
 
4.3.4.1 Shale Density...................................................................................................................................70
 
4.3.4.2 Pressure Cavings..............................................................................................................................71
 
4.3.4.3 Shale Factor......................................................................................................................................72
 
4.4 I
 NFLUX
I
 NDICATORS
.......................................................................................................................................73
 
4.5 W
IRELINE
/ LWD I
 NDICATORS
.......................................................................................................................74
 
4.5.1 Sonic Transit Time..................................................................................................................................74
 
4.5.2 Resistivity................................................................................................................................................75
 
4.5.3 Density....................................................................................................................................................76 
 
4.5.4 Neutron Porosity.....................................................................................................................................76 
 
4.5.5 Gamma Ray.............................................................................................................................................77 
 
4.5.6 Wireline Examples .................................................................................................................................. 78 
5. QUANTITATIVE PRESSURE ANALYSIS....................................................................................................81
 
5.1 C
ALCULATION
T
ECHNIQUES
............................................................................................................................81
 
5.1.1 Eatons Method........................................................................................................................................82
 
5.1.2 Equivalent Depth Method......................................................................................................................85
 
5.1.3 Ratio Method........................................................................................................................................... 87  

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