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Hydraulics v2 1

Hydraulics v2 1

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Published by: Anca Maria Anistoroae on Jun 12, 2011
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DRILLING FLUID HYDRAULICS
Version 2.1
 
January 2001Dave HawkerCorporate Mission
To be a worldwide leader in providing drilling and geological monitoring solutions to the oil and gasindustry, by utilizing innovative technologies and delivering exceptional customer service.
 
DATALOG DRILLING FLUID HYDRAULICS MANUAL, Version 2.1, issued January 2001DATALOG DRILLING FLUID HYDRAULICS MANUAL, Version 2.1, issued January 2001
1
CONTENTS
1 FUNCTIONS OF THE DRILLING FLUID......................................................................................................3
 
1.1 L
UBRICATION AND
C
OOLING OF THE
B
IT AND
D
RILLSTRING
............................................................................3
 
1.2 R
EMOVAL OF
D
RILLED
C
UTTINGS FROM THE
A
NNULUS AND
B
IT
.....................................................................4
 
1.3 C
ONTROL OF
S
UBSURFACE
F
ORMATION
P
RESSURES
........................................................................................5
 
1.4 B
OTTOM HOLE CLEANING
.................................................................................................................................6
 
1.5 T
RANSMIT
H
YDRAULIC
H
ORSEPOWER TO THE
B
IT
...........................................................................................6
 
1.6 S
UPPORT THE
W
EIGHT OF THE
D
RILLSTRING
....................................................................................................6
 
1.7 F
ORMATION
S
TABILITY
....................................................................................................................................6
 
1.8 F
ORMATION
E
VALUATION
................................................................................................................................7
 
2 TYPES OF DRILLING MUD.............................................................................................................................8
 
2.1 W
ATER
B
ASED
M
UDS
......................................................................................................................................8
 
2.2 O
IL
B
ASED
M
UDS
..........................................................................................................................................10
 
2.3 S
YNTHETIC
M
UDS
..........................................................................................................................................11
 
2.4 C
OMMON
M
UD
A
DDITIVES
............................................................................................................................12
 
3 RHEOLOGY DEFINITIONS...........................................................................................................................14
 
3.1 S
HEAR
R
ATE AND
S
HEAR
S
TRESS
..................................................................................................................14
 
3.2 F
LUID
V
ISCOSITY
...........................................................................................................................................15
 
3.3 P
LASTIC
V
ISCOSITY AND
Y
IELD
P
OINT
...........................................................................................................16
 
3.4 G
EL
S
TRENGTH
..............................................................................................................................................16
 
4 FLUID BEHAVIORAL MODELS...................................................................................................................17
 
4.1 N
EWTONIAN
F
LUIDS
.......................................................................................................................................17
 
4.2 B
INGHAM
P
LASTIC
M
ODEL
............................................................................................................................18
 
4.3 P
OWER
L
AW
M
ODEL
......................................................................................................................................19
 
4.4 T
HE
M
ODIFIED
P
OWER
L
AW
..........................................................................................................................21
 
4.5
 
R
HEOGRAM
S
UMMARY OF THE
D
RILLING
F
LUID
M
ODELS
..............................................................................22
 
4.6
 
M
ODEL
E
FFECTS ON
V
ISCOUS
F
LOW
..............................................................................................................23
 
5 LAMINAR, TURBULENT AND TRANSITIONAL FLOW PATTERNS...................................................24
 
5.1 L
AMINAR
F
LOW
.............................................................................................................................................24
 
5.2 T
URBULENT
F
LOW
.........................................................................................................................................24
 
5.3 T
RANSITIONAL
F
LOW
.....................................................................................................................................25
 
5.4 D
ETERMINATION OF
F
LOW
T
YPE
....................................................................................................................25
 
5.4.1 Derivation of Effective Viscosity............................................................................................................26 
 
5.4.2 Determination of the Reynolds Number.................................................................................................27 
 
5.4.3 Determination of Average Annular Velocity..........................................................................................27 
 
5.4.4 Use of the Reynolds Number in determining Flow Type........................................................................28
 
5.4.5 Determination of Critical Velocity.........................................................................................................28
 
6 DETERMINATION OF SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSSES.............................................................................30
 
6.1 F
ANNING
F
RICTION
F
ACTOR
...........................................................................................................................30
 
6.2 D
RILLSTRING
P
RESSURE
L
OSSES
....................................................................................................................32
 
6.3 A
NNULAR
P
RESSURE
L
OSSES
.........................................................................................................................33
 
6.4 B
IT
P
RESSURE
L
OSS
.......................................................................................................................................34
 
6.5 S
URFACE
P
RESSURE
L
OSSES
..........................................................................................................................35
 
7 OTHER HYDRAULIC CALCULATIONS.....................................................................................................36
 
7.1 C
UTTINGS
S
LIP
V
ELOCITY
..............................................................................................................................36
 
7.2 P
ARTICLE
R
EYNOLDS
N
UMBER
......................................................................................................................37
 
 
DATALOG DRILLING FLUID HYDRAULICS MANUAL, Version 2.1, issued January 2001DATALOG DRILLING FLUID HYDRAULICS MANUAL, Version 2.1, issued January 2001
27.3 N
OZZLE
V
ELOCITY
.........................................................................................................................................38
 
8 HYDRAULICS OPTIMIZATION...................................................................................................................40
 
8.1 B
IT
H
YDRAULIC
H
ORSEPOWER
......................................................................................................................40
 
8.2 H
YDRAULIC
I
MPACT
F
ORCE
...........................................................................................................................40
 
8.3 H
YDRAULIC
O
PTIMIZATION
............................................................................................................................41
 
8.4 U
SE OF THE
QLOG
HYDRAULICS PROGRAMS
.................................................................................................42
 
9 EQUIVALENT CIRCULATING DENSITY...................................................................................................45
 
10 SWAB AND SURGE PRESSURES................................................................................................................48
 
10.1 S
URGE
P
RESSURES
.......................................................................................................................................48
 
10.2 S
WAB
P
RESSURES
........................................................................................................................................49
 
10.3 C
ALCULATION OF
S
URGE AND
S
WAB
P
RESSURES
.........................................................................................50
 
10.4 U
SE OF THE
QLOG S
WAB AND
S
URGE
P
ROGRAM
.......................................................................................51
 
APPENDIX - ANSWERS TO TRAINING EXERCISES..................................................................................53
 

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