Shitang. Zhu Fan Zhi (Notes on foreign countries) by Zhao Juguo, the Song dynasty(1225), describing foreign countries. A passage mentions the Qianli Changsha, WanliShitang as landmarks to situate the Hainan island, such as Champa, Zhenla.
Dao Ji Zhi Lue
(General glimpse of the islands) by Wang Dayuan,
the Yuan dynasty(1349),
describing the physical geography, climate, riches and customs of about 100foreign countries. Wanlishitang is treated in a separate chapter, like other regions.
Itshould be emphasized China was a colony of the Mongolian Empire under the YuanDynasty.
Dong Xi Yang Kao
(Studies on the ocean of the East and the West) by Zhang Xie (1618)and Wu Beizhi (about the seven voyages of Zheng He 1405-1433 in the Southern seasand the Indian Ocean) by MaoYuanli(1628).
Hai Guo Wen Jian Lu
(Things heard and seen in overseas countries) Qing dynasty, byZhen Lunchiung. Wanli Changsha and Qianli Shitang are mentioned in a passage onVietnam on the way from Xiamen to Quang Nam (Vietnam).
Again, China was a colonyof the Manchu Empire under the Qing dynasty.
(Note on sea voyage) by Yang Bingnan, Qing dynasty (1820) discussing the 99countries and regions of Europe and America. Wanli Changsha and Qiangli Shitang arementioned in a passage on Java. The drawing of hemisphere attached to the book contains Changsha, Qiangli Shitang in the SEA region.
Hai Guo Tu Zhi
(Notes on foreign countries and navigation) by Wei Yuan, Qingdynasty (1848).
Ying Huan Zhi Lue
(Brief geography of the globe) by Feng Wenzhang in the reign of Daoguang (1848). Changsha and Qiangli Shitang are marked on the map of SEA and noton that of China.Taking into account the mentioned books, there must be about 100 of them. The books insubsequent periods of the Song dynasty are more numerous than those of previous ones.
Notone of the books directly speaks of the Xisha and the Nansha,
not one speaks of Chinese sovereignty over the Xisha and Nansha islands
. A number of books speak of toponyms such as Qianli Changsha, Wanli Shitang, Qiangli Shitang, Jiuruluozhou, which aretoday considered by Chinese researchers as the Xisha and the Nansha.For the most part, the mentioned
books deal with relations, accounts of voyages,monographs and nautical books concerning countries other than China.
Some of themdescribe the activities of Chinese fishermen. Some others are written or related into booksaccounts by persons who have actually made sea travels such as
Cinh Cha Zheng Lan, Ying Ya Zheng Lan,
by Fei Cin and Ma Huan respectively who participated in the Zheng Heexpedition in the Southern sea, or
,written by Yang Binhnan (period of the Qing)according to the. statements of Xie Quinggao (1765-1821), an old Chinese sailor whoworked aboard foreign ships and who was knowledgeable about maritime routes and thecountries of SEA. Some others were written by ambassadors to SEA, such as
Fu Nan Zhuan
(the account of Funan) by Kang Tai ambassador to Funan, the geography of Zhenla by ZhouDaguan, ambassador to Zhenla, the
Hai Guo Guang Ji
(an account of a voyage by theambassador Wu Hui to Champa). The
(History of the Sui) relates the voyage of ambassador Chang Jun across the Bien Dong (East Sea). The other books are by people whodid not make sea journeys but who reported the “things heard and seen” in the same way as