A High-Level Chronology of India’s History
(Note: BCE = Before Common Era; all dates prior to 700 BCE are approximations)
25 million BCE – the island of India slams into Asia and starts uplifting the bordering land to create theHimalaya Mountain range – which is today the tallest in the world and the largest area of permanent snow andice outside the North and South poles.2 million BCE – potential oldest human/humanoid habitation in India90,000 to 40,000 BCE – stone-age tools of pre-historic man (“caveman”) found in India50,000 to 12,000 BCE – evidence for beginning of farming found in Rajasthan near dried up Sarasvati River valley.13,000 to 8000 BCE – earliest evidence for farming and civilization found in Ganga Valley.8000 to 7000 BCE – earliest layers of city of Mehrgarh (oldest archaeologically attestable city of the ancientSapta-Saindhvah Civilization; Sarasvati-Sindhu Civilization [which is often incorrectly referred to as the “IndusValley” civilization] ).8000 to 5000 BCE – earliest evidence for horses (wild and domesticated) in India6000 BCE – ancient pottery found in Lahuradeva, UP and Virana [Bhirrana], Haryana [part of SSC; Sapta-Saindhvah Civilization] and carbon-dated (C-14).5500 BCE – ancient cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa begin.5000 BCE – ancient city Mehrgarh attains a peak population of 20,000.5000 to 4000 BCE – Hakra Phase of SSC [Sapta-Saindhvah Civilization] urban development4600 BCE – excavations in Sumeria show evidence of trade with SSC (India).4500 BCE – potential start of RgVedic composition (concepts however may have existed long before this datebut were not formalized by ruling priests until this time)4100 BCE – a number of Chalcolithic Sites in UP (Sohagaura, Narahan, Lahuradeva, etc.) found.4000 BCE – approximate start of Indian Dynastic list of kings and priests (as documented in the RgVeda andcorrelated against the Puranas - synchronized by the Vedic Anukramanis) starting with Vivasvata.4000 to 3800 BCE – potential timeframe for the earliest major priests of India – (Bhrgu, Angiras, Marici, Atri);these four priests may have been the ancestors of the famous 'Sapta-Rishis' (7 Seers) and Agastya, the 8
Rishi. This list is as follows: Jamadagni (descendant of Bhrgu), Bharadvaja (descendant of Angira), Gotama(descendant of Angira), Kasyapa (descendant of Marici), Vasistha (descendant of Marici), Agastya(descendant of Marici), Atri (descendant of Atri), Visvamitra (descendant of Atri)4000 to 3500 BCE – leading priestly families develop specialization and expertise for specific deities. Thus theGrtsamadas are found to have been devoted to Brahmanaspati (or Brhaspati) as their family deity, theVamadevas to the Rbhus, the Atris to the Maruts, the Bharadvajas to Pusan and the Vasisthas to Mitra andVaruna.