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2332x_04a

# 2332x_04a

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05/27/2013

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CHAPTER 4
DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS
Chapter Contributors
4.1
This chapter covers methods of calculating performance for direct-current (dc)mechanically commutated motors.Section 4.1 discusses the electromagnetic circuitfor dc motors and series ac motors.Sections 4.2 and 4.3 establish some commongeometry and symbols and discuss commutation for dc motors.Section 4.4 presentspermanent-magnet direct-current (PMDC) calculation methods.Section 4.5 pre-sents series dc and universal ac/dc performance calculations.Sections 4.6 and 4.7 dis-cuss methods for calculating the performance of shunt- and compound-connected dcmotors.Finally,Secs.4.8 and 4.9 discuss dc motor windings and automatic armaturewinding.
4.1THEORY OF DC MOTORS
4.1.1DC Series Motors
A series motor operating on direct current has characteristics similar to those whenit is operated on ac current at power-system frequencies.However,it is best todescribe dc and ac operation separately so that comparisons can be made.The general equivalent electrical circuit of the series dc motor and its physicalconstruction is shown in Figs.4.1 and 4.2.The motor consists of a stator having a con-centrated field winding (Fig.4.3) connected in series by way of a commutator to a
*Section contributed by Earl F.Richards.

wound armature (Fig.4.4).One of the first things to be considered in the operationof the motor are the motor and generator action,which exist simultaneously in thearmature circuit of the motor.These two principles are (1) the instantaneous elec-tromotive force (emf),which is induced in the armature conductors when movingwith a velocity
v
within a magnetic field,and (2) the force produced on the conduc-tors as the result of carrying an electric current in this same magnetic field.
4.2
CHAPTER FOUR
FIGURE 4.1
Series motor diagram:
a
=
armature resis-tance measured at brushes,
f
=
main field resistance,and
v
=
applied voltage.
FIGURE 4.2
Series motor.

It is known that the instantaneous force on a conductor of length
carrying a cur-rent
i
in a magnetic field
B
is:
f
=
Bi
sin
θ
N(4.1)Or,in vector notation:
f
=
(
i
×
B
)(4.2)where
θ
is the angle between the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of current flow in the conductor,
B
is in webers per square meter (teslas),
i
is in
DIRECT-CURRENT MOTORS
4.3
FIGURE 4.3
One pole of a series motor field winding.
FIGURE 4.4
Wound armature.