Science Progress • www.scienceprogress.org |
aressng Re n Genes
Introduction and summary
Te human genome sequence has been ully compleed or a decade now and he priceo ull genome sequencing is dropping precipiously. Many believe ha wih hese devel-opmens, a new era o personalized medicine is abou o hi ull speed. Personalizedmedicine is essenially “he use o geneic suscepibiliy or pharmacogeneic esing oailor an individual’s prevenive care or drug herapy,” alhough some deniions alsoinclude he developmen o paien oucomes research, healh inormaion echnology,and care delivery models.
Pu more simply, i means he developmen o medicines andherapies ailored o paiens’ unique geneic rais and risks.Te eld is evolving rapidly bu many hurdles sill remain. Individually ailored drugs based on a paien’s geneic makeup are ar o, and he cos o developing drugs orgeneic subpopulaions wih largely similar geneic rais or one or more diseaseshinders developmens in his arena. Similarly, he lack o sandards surrounding direc-o-consumer geneic ess and he lack o robus, large-scale genomic daa or many diseases and condiions are addiional hurdles.Neverheless, personalized medicine is making is way ino he mainsream. Esimaes by PricewaerhouseCoopers indicae ha he marke or personalized medicine, currenly a$232 billion indusry, will grow a a rae o 11 percen annually.
Personalized medicineis also making serious srides in he pharmaceuical indusry wih drugs like he coloncancer drug Erbiux, which is mos eecive in paiens wih a cerain geneic muaion.Personalized medicine also has he poenial o rein in rising healh care coss. Forinsance, physicians can beter preven adverse drug reacions by using geneic inorma-ion o calibrae he ideal dosage o he blood-hinning drug Wararin or an individualpaien. Tis alone could preven 85,000 serious bleeding cases and 17,000 srokes, andsave he healh care sysem $1.1 billion annually.
Bu he healh care and scienic communiies will sill have o answer imporan ques-ions abou who will have access o hese new medical advancemens as hey develop.Healh dispariies persis beween dieren groups or various reasons including accesso care, liesyle acors, socioeconomic saus, and geneics. Sudies indicae ha minor-iies have less access o healh care and generally receive a lower qualiy o care. Sudiesshow ha Arican Americans have lower incidence o breas cancer han whie women,or example, bu suer greaer moraliy.
Hear disease is widespread among minoriiesand a leading killer in he Arican-American communiy.