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Indefinite Integrals

# Indefinite Integrals

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06/14/2011

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INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
1.ddx(x
n+1
n + 1)= x
n
, n - 1x
n
dx =+ C, n - 1x
n+1
n + 12.ddx(log x)=dx =+ C1x1xlog │x│3.ddx(e
x
)=dx =+ Ce
x
e
x
e
x
4.ddx(log
e
a)=dx =+ Ca
x
a
x
;
a>0, a≠1
a
x
log
e
aa
x
5.ddx(- cos x)=dx =+ Csin xsin x- cos x6.ddx(sin x)=dx =+ Ccos xcos xsin x7.ddx(tan x)=dx =+ Csec
2
xsec
2
xtan x
f(x) dx = Φ(x) + C
8.ddx(- cot x)=dx =+ Ccosec
2
xcosec
2
x- cot x9.ddx(sec x)=dx =+ Csec x tan xsec x tan xsec x10.ddx(- cosec x)=dx =+ Ccosec x cot xcosec x cot x- cosec x

19.ddx()=dx =+ Caxsec
-1
a1axsec
-1
a11x
2
- a
2
x 1x
2
- a
2
x
[ k
1
.f
1
(x) ± k
2
.f
2
(x)……. ± k
n
.f
n
(x) ] dx =k
1
1
(x) dx ± k
2
2
(x) dx ……. ± k
n
n
(x) dx
2
11.ddx(log sin x)=dx =+ Ccot xcot xlog │sin x│12.ddx(- log cos x)=dx =+ Ctan xtan x- log │cos x│13.ddx(log (sec x + tan x ))=dx =+ Csec xsec xlog │sec x + tan x│14.ddx(log (cosec x - cot x ))=dx =+ Ccosec xcosec xlog │cosec x – cot x│15.ddx(sin
-1
)=dx =+ Caxa
2
– x
2
1a
2
– x
2
1sin
-1
ax16.ddx(cos
-1
)=
-
dx =+ Caxa
2
– x
2
1a
2
– x
2
1cos
-1
ax
-
17.ddx()=dx =+ Ca
2
+ x
2
1a
2
+ x
2
1axtan
-1
a1axtan
-1
a118.ddx()=dx =+ Ca
2
+ x
2
- 1a
2
+ x
2
- 1axcot
-1
a1axcot
-1
a120.ddx()=dx =+ Caxcosec
-1
a1axcosec
-1
a1- 1x
2
- a
2
x1x
2
- a
2
x

f(x) dx = Φ(x), then f(ax + b) dx =Φ(ax + b)a1If
METHODS OF INTEGRATION
1. Integration by substitution2. Integration by parts3. Integration of rational algebraic functions by using partial fractions
1. INTEGRATION BY SUBSTITUTION:
i)
If Φ(x) is a continuously differentiable function, then to evaluateintegrals of the form

f(Φ(x)) Φ’(x) dx,we substitute
Φ(x) = t
and
Φ’(x) = dt.
The above integral reduces to
f(t) dtii) In rational algebraic functions if the degree of numerator is greater than or equal to the degree of denominator, then always divide thenumerator by denominator and use the result.Nr.Dr.= Q +RDr.iii) To evaluate integrals of the form
sin
m
x dxcos
m
x dxandwhere m ≤ 4,we express sin
m
x and cos
m
x in terms of sines and cosines of multiples of xby using trigonometrical identities given below.sin
2
x =1 – cos 2x2cos
2
x =1 + cos 2x2sin
3
x =3 sin x – sin 3x4cos
3
x =cos 3x + 3 cos x4
3

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