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9 vygotsky

9 vygotsky

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11/24/2012

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9
Thedevelopment
of
thinkingandconceptformationinadolescence
Lev
Vygotsky
Co
ntentofthel
esson
Thetheoryofthepurelyquantitativeevolutionofthinkinginadolescenceandacriticismofthistheory.-Evolution
of
theformandcontentofthinkinginadolescence.-Theory
of
thedevelopmentofhigherpsychologicalfunctionsandtheproblemofintellectualdevelopment
of
theadolescent.-Theformationofconceptsregardedasthemainfactorcharacterizingadolescentpsychology.-Methodsof studyingtheseconcepts.-Ach'sandRimar'sstudies.-Functionalmethodology ofdoublestimulationandtheinvestigationofconceptformation.-Investigation oftheconceptformation process.-Threestagesinthedevelopmentoftheconceptformationprocess:thestageofsyncreticimages;thestageofconcretecomplexesandthestageofpotentialconcepts.-Thestructureandprocessoftheformationof
real
concepts.-Changesinthecontentofthinkinginconnectionwithconceptformation.-Comparativestudies
of
thethinkingstructuresinchildrenandinadolescents.
Studyplanforthe
lesson
IReadthetextandmakeupaplanandsummaryofthewholechapter.2Makingusoftheconceptdefinitionmethod,comparetheanswerstothesamequestions(aboutanumberofdifferentconcreteandabstractconcepts)givenbyapre-school,aschoolaeandanadolescentchildandanalysetheseanswersinthelightoftheaccountgiveninthischapter.3Studythethreestagesintheformationofconceptsinthethinkingprocessofayoungchild,apre-choolchild,aschoolagechildandanadolescentwhicharedescribedinthetextoftheproject.4
Look
forthepresence
of
syncretisminthepre-schoolchild'sexplanations,ofverbalsyncretismintheschoolagechild'sstatementandforthedisappearanceofthesephenomenaintheadolescent'sanswers.
 
I
5
Think
aboutwhat
conclusionscanbedrawn,basedon
thedata
obtainedabouttheparticularfeatures
of
the
intellectualdevelopment
of
adolescents,whichmight serveasabasisforaneducationalmethodology,from
thepoint
ofviewof
thinking
content
andform.6
Using
the
method
of
completion
of
sentencesbysubordinateclausesafter 'because
..
.','although
..
.',erc.,
determ
ineat
what
stage
full
control
of
logicalmodes
of
thinking
isachieved.
LEV
VYGOTSK
Y
86
Currently,
the
history
of
thought
developmentinadolescence,
the
age
of
transition,alsofindsitselfinasomewhattransitionalstagebetweenoldconceptsandanewlevel
of
understanding
of
the
process
of
intellectual
maturation
whichhasbeenformulated on
the
basis
of
newtheoreticalapproachesto
the
psychologicalnatureofspeechand
thinking,
andon
the
developmentandfunctionaland
stru
ctural
inter
-relationoftheseprocesses.
At
the
present
time
,inanarticledevotedto
thestudy
of
adolescent
thinking,
paedologyat
the
timeof
puberty
isabletoovercome
the
basicandfundamentalprejudices
andthe
disastrousmisunderstandingswhichstandintheway
of
the
development
of
accurateideas
aboutthe
crisisaccompanyingintellectual
maturation
whichmakesup
the
substanceofadolescent
thought
development.This errorisgenerallyexpressedin
thestatement
that
thereis
nothing
fundamentallynew inadolescent
thinking
ascompared
withthe
thought
processesof
the
youngerchild. Somewriterseventaketheextremeview,indefending
the
idea
that
puberty
doesnotreally
mark
the
appearance
of
anysort
of
newintellectualoperationin
the
thinkingspherewhichcannotalreadybefoundinathree-year-oldchild.Lookingatitfromthis
point
of
view,
the
development
of
thinking
hasnocentralplacein
the
maturation
process.
The
vitalmomentoustransformationswhichoccurinliterallyallparts
of
the
adolescent'sorganism
and
personaliry
during
thiscrucialperiod,
the
uncovering
of
newdeeplayers
of
hispersonaliryand
the
developmentof
thehigher
forms
of
hisorganic
and
culturallife-allthis,whenlookedatfromthisperspective,does
not
inanywayaffectadolescent
thinking
.Allthesechanges
occur
in
other
areasandspheres
of
the
personality.
The
resultis
that
the
role
of
intellectualchangesin
the
overallprocess
of
thematuration
crisisinadolescencearedisparagedandpresentedashavingnosignificance.Firstly,
if
oneweretofollowthis
point
of
viewconsistently,
the
veryprocessofthe intellectualchangeswhichoccuratthisageisreducedtoasimplequantitativeaccumulation
of
the
sameparticularfeatureswhicharealreadypresentin
the
thinking
of
athreeyearold
and
toafurtherpurely
quantitativegrowth
towhich,strictly speaking,
the
word'development'can
not
reallybeapplied.
In
recenttimesthis
point
of
viewhasbeen
most
consistentlyfollowedby
Ch.
BUhlerinhertheory
of
adolescenceinwhich,
among
others,acontinuing,orderlydevelopment
of
the
intellect
during
the
periodofpubescenceisascertained.This
 
onecansurmisethatduringpubertyamoremarkedseparationofdialecticandabstractthinkingfromperceptionoccurs.Forthebeliefthatanyintellectualoperationonlyappearsforthefirsttimeduringtheageofpubertybelongs
to
thosetaleswhichchildpsychologyhasdiscredited.Allpossibilitiesforthelaterdevelopmentofthinkingare essentiallyalreadypresentinachildofthreeorfour.
I
theoryassignsanextremelyinsignificantrole
to
theintellectwithintheoverallsystemofthesetransformationsandinthegeneralstructureoftheprocesseswhichexemplifymaturation,withoutrecognizingtheenormouspositivesignificanceofintellectualdevelopmentforthefundamentalandmostprofoundtransformationofthewholepersonalitysystemoftheadolescent.'Generallyspeaking',saysthisauthor, Tosupporttheseideas,theauthorrefers
to
K.
BUhlersstudy,whichpursuesthe pointofviewthatthemostessentialfeaturesofintellectualdevelopment,inthesenseofagradualripeningofthebasicintellectualprocesses,takeshapealreadyatavery
early
age.Ch.BUhlerthinksthatthedifferencebetweenthinkinginyoungchildrenandofadolescentsisthefactthatinthecaseofthechild,visualperceptionandthinkingaregenerallymuchmorecloselyaffiliated.Shesays:
187
HINKl
GAND
CONCEPT
FORMA
nON
IN
ADOLESCENCE
Achildrarelythinksinpurelyverbalorabstractterms.Evenverytalkativeandverbally giftedchildrenalaysproceedfromastartingpointofsomeconcreteexperience,andin
cases
hretheyare
just
carriedwaybyadesiretospeak,thygenerally
chait"au
la
y
withoutthinking.Thmechanismisbeingexercised,withoutseeminglypursuingany othrfunction.Furthermore,therthatchildrendrawconclusionsandmakejudgementssolelywithintheconfinofthirownconcreteexperience,andthattheirplans, inrelationtotheirownshort-termgoals,areenclosedinatightcircleofvisual perception,iswellacceptedand
has
givenrise
to
the
false
assumptionthatchildrenarecompletelyincapableofabstractthinking.Thisopinionhaslongsincebeenrefutedasithasbeenpossibletoestablishthat,fromaveryearlyage,achildperceives,whilstabstractingandselecting,andmentally roundsoutwithakindofhazygeneralcontent,conceptssuchas
good,
bad,sweet,etc.,aswellasbeingabletodevelopotherconceptsthroughabstraction,todrawconclusions,etc.However,therecan
be
nodoubtthat,inlargemeasure,allthesethingsarecloselydependentonhisvisualperceptionsandimpressions.'
Inadolescents,onthecontrary,thinkingbecomeslessconstrainedandlesscon
crete
thanthesensorysourceonwhichitisbased.Thereforeweobservethattherejectionoftheideaofanyesentialchangesintheintellectualdevelopmentoftheadolescent,inevitablyleads
to
anaffirmationofaprocessofsimplegrowthoftheintellectduringpubertyanditsgroingindependencefromsensorymaterial.One
way
inwhichthisideacouldbeformulatedisthatadolescentthinkingacquiresasortofnewqualityincomparisonwiththethinkingofyoungchildrenasitbecomesless
concrete
andfurthermore,itintensifiesandbecomesstrengthened,itincreasesand
grows
whencomparedwiththethinkingofathreeyearold;however,notasingleintellectualfunctionhasitsoriginduringthisentiretransitionalperiodandtherefore

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