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Anashwara: a quality rice variety with multiple tolerance released for Kerala, southern India

Anashwara: a quality rice variety with multiple tolerance released for Kerala, southern India

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Published by Grace Cañas
GenRes_IRRN 2010-025
GenRes_IRRN 2010-025

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Published by: Grace Cañas on Jun 14, 2011
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08/16/2011

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Genetic resources
2011, Vol. 36
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
1
Anashwara: a quality rice variety with multipletolerance released for Kerala, southern India
Rose Mary Francies, Jiji Joseph, and Gregory Zachariah, College of Horticulture,Vellanikkara Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur 680656, Kerala, India
The quality preference of consumers for cooked rice in Kerala differs from that ofconsumers in other parts of India. Keralites prefer red-kerneled, bold, nonsticky,and parboiled rice to white-kerneled, fine-grained rice. Unlike white rice, red riceundergoes minimal milling and polishing. Milling reduces the amount ofnutrients such as thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin E, calcium, phosphorus,phytin, iron, and zinc (FAO 1954). Red rice is found to contain more protein,thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, iron, calcium, phosphorus, zinc, and fiber than whitepolished rice (FAO 2004, ASEAN 2000). However, attempts to develop high-yielding varieties using one or more introduced varieties in their parentage haveresulted in varieties with variable grain quality.Kerala experiences both southwest (Jun–Aug) and northeast (Oct–Nov)monsoon rains and hay making becomes possible only at the end of the rabiseason (Aug–Dec/Jan). During the rabi season, farmers prefer long-duration,photoperiod-sensitive rice varieties with high straw yield. PTB 20 is one of thepopular rabi rice varieties grown in Kerala. It is a tall, photoperiod-sensitive,low-tillering, long-duration (125–130 d) variety with an average yield of only 2.5t ha
1
. It lodges heavily, early on between flowering and grain filling, and hashighly shattering panicles, traits that adversely affect grain yield.A mutation breeding program started at the Regional AgriculturalResearch Station in Pattambi, Kerala, to improve the yield potential of PTB 20while retaining its cooking quality, reducing its tendency to lodge, andminimizing panicle shattering. Presoaked seeds of PTB 20 were irradiated withgamma rays at 22 KR. A photoperiod-sensitive, semi-tall mutant (105–130 cm)with maturity duration of 125–130 d was identified. Exhibiting high yieldpotential, reduced lodging (lodging at maturity only) and panicle shattering, andmultiple tolerance for diseases and insect pests (Table 3), this mutant wasmultiplied and designated as Culture 20 D-1.Culture 20 D-1 was evaluated in initial yield trials from 1994 to 1996 andwas included in the 1996-97 comparative yield trial, along with other promisingmutant lines. It outyielded check variety PTB 20. In regional trials (2001-02),Culture 20 D-1 showed an increase in grain (8.91%) and straw yield (22.09%)(Table 1). The sensory quality of parboiled rice was assessed following standard
 
 
Genetic resources
2011, Vol. 36
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
2procedures (DRR 2009). With its good taste and overall acceptability, Culture 20D-1 was found to be on a par with PTB 20 in cooking quality characteristics(Table 2). Although it was not bred as a boro rice variety (cold-tolerant hillpaddy cultivated in northeast India), it was evaluated under the All IndiaCoordinated Rice Improvement Program-Boro Trial (2002) because it wasphotoperiod-sensitive. Designated as IET 17608, it ranked second in the trials atBankura, Assam. A summary of the important characteristics of Culture 20 D-1 isgiven in Table 3.Considering itt superior yield, reduced lodging, low panicle shattering,good taste, and overall acceptability, Culture 20 D-1 was released in 2006 as PTB58 for cultivation during the rabi season in the state of Kerala. Its local name isAnashwara, which means “immortal.”
 
References
ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations). 2000. Food composition table for use in EastAsia
[
online
]
. www.fao.org/docrep/003/X6878E/X6878E02.htm#ch4.1 Accessed 7 Sep2010.DRR (Directorate of Rice Research). 2009. Laboratory manual on rice grain quality: physico-chemical and molecular procedures. Hyderabad (India): DRR.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 1954. FAO Corporate Document Depository—rice inhuman nutrition. www.fao.org/docrep/t0567e/T0567E08.htm. Accessed 7 Sep 2010.FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2004. Rice and human nutrition
[
online
]
.www.rice2004.org. Accessed 7 Sep 2010.
 
Table 1. Performance of Culture 20 D-1 (Anashwara) in yield trials.
Grain yield (kg ha
1
) Straw yield (kg ha
1
)District LocationCulture 20 D-1PTB 20Culture 20 D-1 PTB 20Station trialsInitial yield trials(1994-96)RARS, Pattambi 3,7162,8952,874 2,539CD
(0.05)
97.45110.50Percent increase over PTB 20 in initial yieldtrials28.3513.19Comparative yieldtrial(1996-97)RARS, Pattambi 4,340 3,4387,171 6,735CD
(0.05)
155326Percent increase over PTB 20 incomparative yield trial26.246.47Regional trials(Rabi 2001-02)Districts:Thrissur & Ernakulam3,5823,2895,617 4,601Percent increase over PTB 20 in regionaltrials8.9122.09
 
 
 
Genetic resources
2011, Vol. 36
 
International Rice Research Notes
(0117-4185)
3
Table 2. Sensory quality assessment of Culture 20 D-1 (Anashwara) and PTB 20.
 
Quality characteristic
Culture 20 D-1 PTB 20Appearance 5.0 4.2Cohesiveness 2.6 2.8Tenderness on touching 3.4 4.0Tenderness on chewing 3.6 4.0Taste 3.5 2.9Aroma 3.6 2.6Elongation 2.8 2.6Overall acceptability 2.8 2.3
Scoring: as per DRR (2009).
 
Table 3. Characteristics of Culture 20 D-1 (Anashwara).
Characteristic ValuePlant habitPlant height 105–130 cmLeaf color GreenLength 36.20 cmWidth 0.30 cmFlag leaf IntermediateLeaf sheath color Green with slight purple tinge at the baseLigule Pale greenCollar WhiteLeaves at maturity Pale green, intermediateInflorescenceStigma color PurpleOuter glume color StrawLemma and palea Light green ripening to gold furrows on strawbackgroundAwn AbsentFertility Highly fertilePanicle Moderately well-exsertedPanicle length 17.80 cmSeed coat color BrownKernel appearance RedGrain sizeLength 7.93 mmWidth 3.17 mmL/B 2.5Shape LB

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