As stated before, the hysteric friction
M
fric
is modelled eitheras static coulomb friction or by using a dynamic friction model.The friction modelling is elaborated later on.The total set of
N
DOFs are collected in the column
Q
= [
φ
1
(
t
)
,
φ
2
(
t
)
,..,
φ
N
(
t
)]
T
.
(9)From the derived energy and work expression, the ﬁnal set of
N
equations of motion are derived using
Lagrange’s
equations
d dt
T
,
˙
Q
−
T
,
Q
+
U
g
,
Q
+
U
s
,
Q
=
−
R
,
˙Q
+
M
nc
,
(10)where the column with nonconservative moments
M
nc
followsfrom
δ
W
nc
=
M
nc
δ
Q
, with
W
nc
deﬁned by Eq. (8). Note that forthe cases where the motions of the free hose end is prescribed,Lagrange equations for constrained systems followed, see [6].The derivation of the model is performed in
MAPLE
after whichthe resulting set of equations of motion is exported in
MATLAB
format for further (numerical) analysis.
Friction models
Inthescopeconsideredhere, hysteresisisarateindependentdissipative effect. For clariﬁcation, viscous damping is velocitydependent and is thus not rateindependent. In contrast, coulombfriction depends on the normal force between the contactsurfaces and the sign of the velocity. Assuming the contact forceconstant, coulomb friction thus results in a rateindependentdissipative damping. Hysteresis can be identiﬁed from quasistatically obtained force displacement (or rotation) results.If hysteresis is present, the load plotted versus displacementobtained from a quasistatic measurement will form a loop.The hysteric effect in the hose is captured by including arateindependent friction moment term
M
fric
in the hinges of thecoupled pendula. The friction moment according to the mostsimple rateindependent friction model, i.e. the coulomb frictionmodel, equals
M
fric
,
i
=
−
µ
sgn
˙
φ
i
+
1
−
˙
φ
i
,
(11)where
µ
is the static friction which is assumed to be independenton the axial force working on the hinge (i.e. the inﬂuence of axialforce on the hose hysterical behaviour is not included). Aroundzero relative velocity, Eq. (11) is discontinuous. To be able tosolve the ﬁnal set of equations of motion including the coulombfriction at the hinges, the sgn
()
function in smoothed with anarctangent function
M
fric
,
i
=
−
µ
2
π
atan
ε
(
˙
φ
i
+
1
−
˙
φ
i
)
.
(12)For accurate approximation, the steepness parameter (
ε
>
0)should be selected sufﬁciently large.More sophisticated friction effects can be captured using thedynamic Dahl friction model [7]. Dynamic friction modellingmeans that the friction is determined by a separate state variable.It is shown that such models can capture more accurately frictionphenomena than static friction models (like Eq. (11)). The starting point for the Dahl model is the elasticplastic stressstraincurve in classical solid mechanics. When subject to stress thefriction force increases gradually until rupture occurs. At thispoint the friction force saturates at its static friction level. Dahlmodeled the stressstrain curve by a differential equation. Let
x
be the displacement,
F
the friction force, and
µ
the Coulombfriction force. Then Dahl’s model has the form
dF dx
=
σ
1
−
F
µ
sgn
(
v
)
,
(13)where
σ
is a stiffness coefﬁcient. As can be noted for
F
/
µ
≪
1,the Dahl model reduces to a linear stiffness term (i.e.
dF dx
=
σ
).In addition, the friction force will never be larger than
µ
if itsinitial condition is such that
F
(
0
)
<
µ
.To be able to implement Eq. (13) in the equations motions,a time domain version is required. This follows from (for
α
=
1)
dF dt
=
dF dxdxdt
=
σ
1
−
F
µ
sgn
(
v
)
v
.
(14)Introducing
F
=
σ
z
, the dynamic model can be written as
dzdt
=
v
−
σ

v

µ
z
,
(15)where
z
is an independent dynamic state. Here the friction modelis presented in terms of force, but the same model can be used tomodel a frictional moment. Modelling the friction in the chainmodel of the hose results in
N
additional equations in the formwith
M
fric
,
i
=
σ
z
i
and
dz
i
dt
=
v
i
−
σ
l

v
i

µ
z
i
,
(16)3 Copyrightc
2011 by ASME