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INFLUENCE OF HYSTERESIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF CRYOGENIC LNG COMPOSITE HOSES

INFLUENCE OF HYSTERESIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF CRYOGENIC LNG COMPOSITE HOSES

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Proceedings of ASME Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering ConferenceOMAE2011June 19-24, 2011, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
OMAE2011-49188
INFLUENCE OF HYSTERESIS ON THE DYNAMICS OF CRYOGENIC LNGCOMPOSITE HOSES
Niels Mallon, Gerard van der Weijde
TNOBuiltEnvironmentandGeosciences,Structures&SafetyCentreformechanicalandmaritimeconstructions(CMC)VanMourikBroekmanweg6,2628XE,Delft,TheNetherlandsgerard.vanderweijde@tno.nl
ABSTRACT
 In order to assess the influence of hysteretic bending be-haviour of hoses used for LNG transfer in dynamic environments,a modelling strategy is set up. The modelling allows to includearbitrary internal frictional effects in the hose. After identify-ing the parameters for various friction models based on mea-surement results performed on the cryogenic hose, the model isexploited further to study other cases. For hose release events,inclusion of hysteresis accurately seems less important while for more slowly varying steady-state responses, the way how inter-nal friction in the hose is included may have significant effects.
INTRODUCTION
For offshore ship-to-ship (STS) transfer of LNG (see Fig.1), composite hoses have been proven to be a safe and flexibleapproach [1]. For the reliability and fatigue assessments of suchSTS systems, knowledge of the global dynamic response of LNGmulti-composite hoses used is essential. However, predictionof the dynamics of such hose strings is challenging since theyposses a significant non-linear behavior under operation (cryo-genic) conditions. In addition, due to micro/macro slip betweenthe various non-bonded layers and helical steel wires of whichthe hoses are build up, the hose behaviour is hysteric. For cap-turing hysteretic effects in non-bonded risers, complex FEM ap-proaches are available, see [2–4]. Such methods are developedfor fatigue analyses. For composite hoses, however, such ap-proaches are not available, and for fast design analyses such
Address all correspondence to this author.
FIGURE 1
. STS transfer of LNG using Gutteling 8” composite hoses(Photo courtesy of Gutteling B.V.).
methods seem also less suitable since they are very demandingin terms of computational time and resources.Hose response measurement results are obtained during var-ious tests on specimens and on full scale configurations. Basedon this data, the dynamics of the hose string is thoroughly ana-lyzed. During these analyses, it was found that, although forcedisplacement measurements and bending stiffness measurementswhere available, prediction of natural frequencies of hose stringconfigurations where still very unreliable. It was believed thatthese discrepancies where due the hysteresis, an effect initially1 Copyrightc
2011 by ASME
 
FIGURE 2
. Example coupled pendula model (from [5]).
not taken into account in the analyses. To fill this gap, in this pa-per, a modeling approach is setup allowing to include effects of hose internal friction effects in a lumped manner. In the model,the 2D hose deformation is discretized using a chain of rigid pen-dula. At each hinge, an arbitrary rotational stiffness and dampingfunction may be applied. As a comparison, the damping is mod-elled as pure viscous damping, as a combination of viscous andstatic coulomb friction and as a combination of viscous and
dy-namic
friction. Based on the model with dynamic friction, thehysteretic effect could be captured accurately.After the approach is validated and the parameters are identified,the influence of hysteris is illustrated for a number of cases suchas the quick release of the hose at one end, simulation of a rollingbending fatigue test and a numerical dynamic frequency sweeptest.
MODELLING
The hose deflections in the 2D plane are modeled using achain of rigid pendula. For this purpose, the modelling approachpresented in [5] is extended with rotational stiffness and dampingat the hinges. An example of the coupled pendulum model isshown in Fig. 2. The absolute rotations of the individual rigidlinks (
φ 
i
) are used as the degrees of freedom of the model. Toderive the hose model, the potential energy and kinetic energy interms of 
φ 
i
(and their time derivatives˙
φ 
i
) will be derived first.The location in the fixed cartesian coordinate system (
 x
,
 y
) of thecenter of mass each
i
-th link is defined by
 x
i
=
i
1
 j
=
1
l
cos
φ 
 j
+
l
2
cos
φ 
i
,
(1)
 y
i
=
i
1
 j
=
1
l
sin
φ 
 j
+
l
2
sin
φ 
i
.
(2)Eachrigidlinkhasmomentofinertia
 I 
m
=
112
ml
2
, where
m
=
l
ρ
 A
with
ρ
 A
the weight per unit length of the hose and
l
the link length. Considering a chain of 
links, the kinetic energy of thechain equals
T  
=
12
 N 
 j
=
1
m
(
˙
 x
2
i
+
˙
 y
2
i
)+
 I 
m
˙
φ 
2
i
,
(3)and the potential energy due to gravity equals
g
=
 N 
 j
=
1
mgy
i
.
(4)Next the potential energy due to rotational stiffness at each hingeis derived. The rotation of the hinge between two links equals
φ 
i
+
1
φ 
i
. A linear rotational stiffness at each hinge equal to
 M 
stif f 
=
c
1
(
φ 
i
+
1
φ 
i
)
[Nm] is included via the strain energy ex-pression
s
=
12
 N 
1
i
=
1
c
(
φ 
i
+
1
φ 
i
)
2
+
c
φ 
21
,
(5)where the stiffness parameter
c
, is related to the hose bendingstiffness
EI 
by
c
=
EI l
.
(6)Note that the stiffness is normalized by the inverse of 
l
=
L
/
 N 
to to include hose stiffness independent from the number of ele-ments used.Viscous damping is related to the rotational velocity at thehinges, i.e.
viscous
=
b
(
˙
φ 
i
+
1
˙
φ 
i
)
[Nm]. This effect is includedin the model using the dissipation function
 R 
=
12
bl
 N 
1
i
=
1
(
˙
φ 
i
+
1
˙
φ 
i
)
2
+
˙
φ 
21
,
(7)where
b
is the viscous damping parameter which is also normal-ized by
l
.The virtual work due to the (non conservative) hysteric frictionin the hinges equals
W  
nc
=
 N 
1
i
=
1
 M 
 fric
,
i
(
φ 
i
+
1
φ 
i
)+
 M 
 fric
,
1
φ 
1
.
(8)2 Copyrightc
2011 by ASME
 
As stated before, the hysteric friction
 fric
is modelled eitheras static coulomb friction or by using a dynamic friction model.The friction modelling is elaborated later on.The total set of 
DOFs are collected in the column
Q
= [
φ 
1
(
)
,
φ 
2
(
)
,..,
φ 
 N 
(
)]
.
(9)From the derived energy and work expression, the final set of 
equations of motion are derived using
Lagrange’s
equations
dt 
T  
,
˙
Q
T  
,
Q
+
g
,
Q
+
s
,
Q
=
 R 
,
˙Q
+
 M 
nc
,
(10)where the column with non-conservative moments
nc
followsfrom
δ 
W  
nc
=
nc
δ 
Q
, with
W  
nc
defined by Eq. (8). Note that forthe cases where the motions of the free hose end is prescribed,Lagrange equations for constrained systems followed, see [6].The derivation of the model is performed in
MAPLE
after whichthe resulting set of equations of motion is exported in
MATLAB
format for further (numerical) analysis.
Friction models
Inthescopeconsideredhere, hysteresisisarate-independentdissipative effect. For clarification, viscous damping is velocitydependent and is thus not rate-independent. In contrast, coulombfriction depends on the normal force between the contactsurfaces and the sign of the velocity. Assuming the contact forceconstant, coulomb friction thus results in a rate-independentdissipative damping. Hysteresis can be identified from quasi-statically obtained force displacement (or rotation) results.If hysteresis is present, the load plotted versus displacementobtained from a quasi-static measurement will form a loop.The hysteric effect in the hose is captured by including arate-independent friction moment term
 fric
in the hinges of thecoupled pendula. The friction moment according to the mostsimple rate-independent friction model, i.e. the coulomb frictionmodel, equals
 M 
 fric
,
i
=
µ 
sgn
˙
φ 
i
+
1
˙
φ 
i
,
(11)where
µ 
is the static friction which is assumed to be independenton the axial force working on the hinge (i.e. the influence of axialforce on the hose hysterical behaviour is not included). Aroundzero relative velocity, Eq. (11) is discontinuous. To be able tosolve the final set of equations of motion including the coulombfriction at the hinges, the sgn
()
function in smoothed with anarctangent function
 M 
 fric
,
i
=
µ 
2
π 
atan
ε 
(
˙
φ 
i
+
1
˙
φ 
i
)
.
(12)For accurate approximation, the steepness parameter (
ε 
>
0)should be selected sufficiently large.More sophisticated friction effects can be captured using thedynamic Dahl friction model [7]. Dynamic friction modellingmeans that the friction is determined by a separate state variable.It is shown that such models can capture more accurately frictionphenomena than static friction models (like Eq. (11)). The start-ing point for the Dahl model is the elastic-plastic stress-straincurve in classical solid mechanics. When subject to stress thefriction force increases gradually until rupture occurs. At thispoint the friction force saturates at its static friction level. Dahlmodeled the stress-strain curve by a differential equation. Let
 x
be the displacement,
the friction force, and
µ 
the Coulombfriction force. Then Dahl’s model has the form
dF dx
=
σ 
1
µ 
sgn
(
v
)
,
(13)where
σ 
is a stiffness coefficient. As can be noted for
/
µ 
1,the Dahl model reduces to a linear stiffness term (i.e.
dF dx
=
σ 
).In addition, the friction force will never be larger than
µ 
if itsinitial condition is such that
(
0
)
<
µ 
.To be able to implement Eq. (13) in the equations motions,a time domain version is required. This follows from (for
α 
=
1)
dF dt 
=
dF dxdxdt 
=
σ 
1
µ 
sgn
(
v
)
v
.
(14)Introducing
=
σ 
 z
, the dynamic model can be written as
dzdt 
=
v
σ 
|
v
|
µ 
z
,
(15)where
z
is an independent dynamic state. Here the friction modelis presented in terms of force, but the same model can be used tomodel a frictional moment. Modelling the friction in the chainmodel of the hose results in
additional equations in the formwith
 fric
,
i
=
σ 
 z
i
and
dz
i
dt 
=
v
i
σ 
l
|
v
i
|
µ 
z
i
,
(16)3 Copyrightc
2011 by ASME

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