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stephen c neff

stephen c neff

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Published by Dafi D. Wiradimadja

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: Dafi D. Wiradimadja on Jun 15, 2011
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a short history ofinternational law
Stephen C Ne 
This history will emphasize broad trends in international law, in both the conceptual sphereand in State practice. The discussion will move chronologically, beginning with a cursory lookat the ancient world, followed by a rather fuller discussion of the great era of natural law inthe European Middle Ages. The classical period (1600–1815) witnessed the emergence of adualistic view of international law, with the law of nature and the law of nations co-existing(more or less amicably). In the nineteenth century—the least known part of internationallaw—doctrinaire positivism was the prevailing viewpoint, though not the exclusive one.Regarding the inter-war years, developments both inside and outside the League of Nationswill be considered. Since the post-1945 period will occupy most of the remainder of thisbook, this discussion will confine itself to a few historically-oriented comments on some ofits most general features.
N aea f eaal law has bee s lle exple by shlas as he hsy f hesbje. s s a emakable sae f aas, pbably wh paallel  ay he aa-em sple (lg he bahes f law). Alhgh hs elleal saal (as well eseves  be alle) s w beg emee, we ae sll ly  he eales sages f he ses sy f eaal legal hsy. May blak sps exs, sme f whh wllbe ee  passg  he sss belw.s sh hsy—evabl
sh hsy—a gve ly he ms geeal a- v f he maj pes f evelpme f eaal law. I wll agly  bepssble  gve me ha he ms ke ae  evelpmes se he Wesemaseam. Bh eas a Sae pae wll be vee. e eas hey ewha eaal law was hgh  ss f  pas mes. Sae pae s ee
tn c n
wh wha Saes aally 
. I was he w  mba—f  always  lsehamy—ha mae eaal law wha  beame.
ncint ord
F a vv a f hw pess fm eve he ms vese les a elae e ahe  a peaefl, peable, a mally beeal fash,  s  l  pHes’s esp f ‘sle ag’ bewee he Cahagas a a ameNh Afa be  ab he sxh ey BC. Whe he Cahagas ave  hebe’s aea by shp, hey wl la a ple f gs fm he vessels, leave hem  hebeah a he e  he bas a se a smke sgal. e aves wl he mea spe he gs  he w, leave a ple f gl, a ee. e he Cahagaswl e; a, f sase ha he gl epesee a fa pe, hey wl ake a epa. If  sase, hey wl aga ee  he shps; a he aves wle  leave me gl. e pess wl e l bh ses wee e, awhh p he Cahagas wl sal away wh he gl, wh a w exhagebewee he w gps. ‘ee s pefe hesy  bh ses’, Hes asses s,wh  pblems f he   (Hes,
, p 336).s sle ag aageme may have bee sessfl  s way, b a pess f ea s exbly als a s aw  sbje mae l haly sef plal eas bewee Saes, eve  ae mes. Ms peple pbably havehe feelg ha smehg ahe me elabae s eqe  me he ga ame f ‘eaal law’. Iee, he ambgy f he em ‘eaal law’ leas  vasee aswes  he qes f whe eaal law ‘bega’. If by ‘eaallaw’ s mea meely he esemble f mehs  eves whh gve a eleme f pe-ably  eaal elas (as  he sle-ag llsa), he he gmay be plae vally as fa bak as ee hsy self. If by ‘eaal law’ smea a me  less mpehesve sbsave e f  applyg  as, hehe lae lassal pe a Mle Ages was he me f s bh. If ‘eaal law’s ake  mea a se f sbsave pples applyg
 Saes as sh, hehe seveeeh ey wl be he sag me. If ‘eaal law’ s ee as heega f he wl a lage  smehg lke a sgle mmy e a le f law, he he eeeh ey wl be he eales ae (pehaps a e pmsally).If, ally, ‘eaal law’ s es  mea he eames a jal essf a wl gveme, he s bh les (f a all) smewhee  he fe—a,  alllkelh, he sa fe a ha.If we ake he ms ese f hese es, he we l expe   hebes evee f a ase eaal law  he hee aeas f ae Easa hawee haaeze by ese ewks f small, epee Saes shag a me  lessmm elgs a lal vale sysem: Mespama (by, say, he fh  hmllem BC), he Ia ( he Ve pe ae ab 1600 BC), a lassalGeee. Eah f hese hee Sae sysems was haaeze by a mba f plalfagmea a lal y. s eable a mbe f faly saa paes emege, whh helpe  plae e-Sae elas  a leas a smewha sable a pe-able fg. ee pala aeas pve evee f hs evelpme: plma
 ort itor o intrntion 
elas, eay-makg, a he  f wa.
A maj aal b f heGeek y-Saes was he pae f aba f spes, f whh hee ame  be a vey mpessve by f pae (see Age, 1996).I was  aely l f sme f hese paes  exe ass eepe l-al les as well. Oe f he eales svvg eay exs s bewee Egyp a heHe Empe, fm he heeh ey BC. e ageeme ee a mpealvs f sphees f ee, b  als eal wh he exa f fgves. e pb-lem f g fah a bg fe was ese by elsg he gs f bh as (whsa sg  all)  a as gaas (Beema, 2001, pp 147–150).Wh he ave f he gea vesal elgs, fa me baly-base sysems f wl e beame pssble. Oe sag example was he Islam empe f he sev-eh ey AD a aewas. Sgaly, he by f law  elas bewee Saeswh he Mslm wl (he
Dar al-Islam
,  ‘Hse f Islam’) was mh he haha egag elas wh he se wl (he
Dar al-Harb
,  ‘Hse f wa’). Beve wh el Saes a aals, a mbe f pagma eves evlve  pemelas    peable ways—sh as ‘empay’ es ( le f eaes) safe-s sse  vals (smemes  a vey lage sale).
I Wese hsy, he speme exempla f he mlaal empe was Rme. Bhe Rma Empe was,  s fmave pe, a smewha eave a amshakleaa, wh a ve-ahg ehal  elgs bass mpaable  he Islam el-g  he lae Aab empe. a bega  hage, hweve, whe ea phlsph-al eps wee mpe fm Geee (fm ab he se ey BC). e msmpa f hese was he ea f a se f vesal pples f jse: he belef ha,ams he wele f vayg laws f ee Saes, ea sbsave les f wee pese 
hma sees. s ea s sfae  he wgs f Asle(
, p 1370). B  was ake mh fhe by he phlsphes f he S shl,wh evsage he ee wl as a sgle ‘wl y-Sae’ (
) gvee by he law f ae. Ce, wg e S ee, haaeze hs law f aeas beg ‘spea hgh he whle hma mmy, hagg a eeal’ (Ce,
, pp 68–69).s ep f a vesal a eeal aal law was lae ape by w hegps, he Rma lawyes a he Chsa Chh, a he beqeahe by hem meeval Epe. e lawyes  pala mae a s ha wl have a vey lg lfe ahea f : bewee a
 jus naturale
( aal law ppely speakg) a a
 jus gentium
( law f peples). e w wee s, b a he same me s lsely e-ee ha he eees bewee hem wee e vey easly ge. Naallaw was he bae ep. I was smehg lke wha we wl w all a by f se laws, applable  js  hma begs b  he whle amal kgm aswell. e
 jus gentium
was he hma mpe,  sb-aegy, f . Js as he lawf ae was vesal  he aal wl, s was he
 jus gentium
vesal  he
O he Mle Ease a Geek pae, see geeally Beema, 2001. O ae Ia, seeBhaa, 1977.
O Islam vews f eaal law, see geeally Kha, 1955.

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