Other people whose work is associated with gender studies
Gender is an important area of study in many disciplines
, such asliterary theory, drama studies,film theory, performance
theory, contemporaryart history,anthropology,sociology,psychologyandpsychoanalysis. These disciplines sometimes differ in
their approaches to how and why they study gender. For instance in anthropology, sociology and psychology, gender is oftenstudied as a practice, whereas in cultural studies representations of gender are more often examined. Gender studies is also adiscipline in itself: aninterdisciplinaryarea of study that incorporates methods and approaches from a wide range of disciplines.
Influences of gender studies
Gender studies and psychoanalytic theory
Some feminist critics have dismissed the work of Sigmund Freudas sexist, because of his view that women are 'mutilated and mustlearn to accept their lack of a penis' (in Freud's terms a "deformity").
On the other hand, feminist theorists such asJulietMitchell,Nancy Chodorow,Jessica Benjamin,Jane Gallop,Bracha Ettinger ,Shoshana Felman,Griselda Pollock
and Jane Flaxhave argued that psychoanalytic theory is vital to the feminist project and must, like other theoretical traditions, be adapted bywomen to free it from vestiges of sexism.Shulamith Firestone, in "Freudianism: The Misguided Feminism", discusses howFreudianism is
completely accurate, with the exception of one crucial detail: everywhere that Freud writes "penis", the wordshould be replaced with "power".
Lacan's theory of sexuation organizes femininity and masculinity according to different unconscious structures. Both male andfemale subjects participate in the "phallic" organization, and the feminine side of sexuation is "supplementary" and not opposite or complementary.
Sexuation (sexual situation) ² the development of gender-roles and role-play in childhood ² breaks downconcepts of gender identity as innate or biologically determined. (clarify-refutes?challenges?)
Critics likeElizabethGroszaccuseJacques Lacanof maintaining a sexist tradition in psychoanalysis.
Others, such asJudith Butler ,Bracha
Ettinger andJane Gallophave used Lacanian work, though in a critical way, to develop gender theory.
ain article:Julia Kristeva