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United States Activities in Libya -- 6-15-11

United States Activities in Libya -- 6-15-11

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Published by Jake Towne
United States Activities in Libya -- 6-15-11
United States Activities in Libya -- 6-15-11

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Published by: Jake Towne on Jun 16, 2011
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United States Activities in Libya
Table of
 
Contents
 
Overview of United States Activities in Libya ........................ 2Political and Military Objectives and Means .......................... 5Background ......................................................... 5Where We Are Now ................................................... 8U.S. Support to NATO Mission ........................................ 11Consequences of U.S. Not Participating in NATO Operations ........... 13Current and Projected Costs ......................................... 14Military Costs .................................................... 14Humanitarian Costs ................................................ 17Department of State Operational Costs ............................. 20Analysis of Impact on U.S. Operations in Iraq and Afghanistan ....... 21Department of Defense ............................................. 21Department of State ............................................... 21USAID ............................................................. 21Description of Interim Transitional National Council ................ 22Recognition ....................................................... 22Transition Planning ............................................... 23Assistance ........................................................ 23Analysis of Potential Ties to Extremist Groups .................... 24Legal Analysis and Administration Support for Bipartisan Resolution . 25Congressional Consultation .......................................... 26Contents of Classified Annex ........................................ 32Importance of U.S. Military to Opposition GroupsAssessment of Opposition Military GroupsCoalition Contributions to NATO MissionAssessment of Extremist Groups in LibyaThreat Assessment of MANPADs, Ballistic Missiles, and ChemicalWeapons in Libya
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Overview of United States Activities in Libya
In his address to the nation on Libya on March 28, 2011,President Obama presented a comprehensive explanation for why heauthorized military action as part of an international coalitionto protect the people of Libya and to enforce U.N. SecurityCouncil Resolution (UNSCR) 1973.In the intervening weeks and months, coalition efforts have beeneffective in protecting the Libyan population. The regime hassuffered numerous defeats, cities and towns across Libya havebeen liberated from brutal sieges, strong sanctions are inplace, and the regime is encountering serious difficultiesraising revenues through oil sales or other means. All theseactions and outcomes are consistent with UNSCR 1973.As the President explained, much was at stake when Qadhafi beganattacking his people and threatened to show “no mercy” to thecity of Benghazi and its population of 700,000:“In this particular country – Libya – at this particularmoment, we were faced with the prospect of violence on ahorrific scale. We had a unique ability to stop thatviolence: an international mandate for action, a broadcoalition prepared to join us, the support of Arabcountries, and a plea for help from the Libyan peoplethemselves. We also had the ability to stop Qaddafi’sforces in their tracks without putting American troops onthe ground.”The United States and its international partners acteddecisively and with unprecedented speed to mobilize a broadcoalition, secure an international mandate to protect civilians,stop an advancing army, prevent a massacre, and establish a no-fly zone. In contrast, the war in Bosnia raged for nearly twoyears before the first NATO military operations took place, andthree years before NATO began ground strikes to protect thecivilian population.The President authorized these actions for several reasons ofnational interest:
 
To limit the spread of violence and instability in a regionpivotal to our security interests, particularly while it isundergoing sensitive transitions;
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To prevent an imminent humanitarian catastrophe; and
 
To show the people of the Middle East and North Africa thatAmerica stands with them at a time of momentous transition.Beyond the specific military objectives, the President hasstated that Qadhafi has lost all legitimacy to rule and muststep down. His brutal behavior against his own population hasbeen catalogued by a United Nations Commission of Inquiry andhas resulted in a request for arrest warrants by the Prosecutorof the International Criminal Court for crimes against humanity.Moreover, the Libyan government’s actions posed a significantthreat to regional peace and security. As the President notedin his March 21 report to Congress, the Qadhafi regime’s“illegitimate use of force” was “forcing many [civilians] toflee to neighboring countries, thereby destabilizing the peaceand security of the region.” “Left unaddressed,” the Presidentfurther noted, “the growing instability in Libya could ignitewider instability in the Middle East, with dangerousconsequences to the national security interests of the UnitedStates.” The risk of regional destabilization was alsorecognized by the UN Security Council, which determined inResolution 1973 that the situation in Libya was “a threat tointernational peace and security.” Indeed, as Secretary ofDefense Robert Gates testified to Congress on March 31, “itcontinues to be in our national interest to prevent Qadhafi fromvisiting further depredations on his own people, destabilizinghis neighbors, and setting back the progress the people of theMiddle East have made....”Further, the longstanding U.S. commitment to maintaining thecredibility of the United Nations Security Council and theeffectiveness of its actions to promote international peace andsecurity was at stake in Libya once the Council took action toimpose a no-fly zone and to authorize all necessary measures toprotect civilians and civilian populated areas under threat ofattack, particularly after Qadhafi’s forces ignored the UNSC’scall for a cease fire and for the cessation of attacks oncivilians.As President Obama noted in his March 28 speech, withoutmilitary action to stop Qadhafi’s repression, “[t]he writ of theUnited Nations Security Council would have been shown to belittle more than empty words, crippling that institution’sfuture credibility to uphold global peace and security.”
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