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Final Report Hind

Final Report Hind

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Published by Vinay Ramane

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Published by: Vinay Ramane on Jun 16, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Punctuality in the attendance is the very basis of the well-organized stabilized andenlightened society and it forms the back bone of industrial management. No institution,however progressive can work effectively if its employee/worker is not punctual andregular in the attendance.Absenteeism is "nonattendance of employees for scheduled work. When they areexpected to attend" (Huczynski and Fitzpatrick, 1989.Because absenteeism involvesnonattendance from scheduled work in terms of hours and days rather than minutes, it isdistinguishable from being late to work (Rhodes and Steers, 1990). There are differentreasons why workers are absent from work, such as an illness, family emergency or justtaking a day off. These different reasons can be categorized into unavoidable andavoidable absenteeism (also called involuntary and voluntary absenteeism) (Steers andRhodes, 1978).Unavoidable absences are the result of conditions that are usually not under thecontrol of the worker, such as illness, injury, transportation problems or the need to carefor a sick family member. Avoidable absenteeism occurs because the employee decidesto be absent from work for reasons that most employers would view as inappropriate or even illegitimate, such as to have a day off, to attend a social event, to sleep in or torecover from a hangover.For the typical U.S. worker, Klein (1986) estimated that 55 percent of absencesfell into the category of unavoidable and 45 percent could be classified as avoidable. In asurvey of U.S. workers, it was found that 42 percent of wealthy households, 41 percent of college-educated workers and 43 percent of those younger than 24 years old admitted thatthey had pretended to be sick in order to avoid work.(Lach,1999). The major reason given in the survey was that they just wanted aday off, followed closely by the need for a "mental health day." Therefore, roughly half of all absences are unavoidable, while the other half are avoidable (Brooke, 1986).Absenteeism costs correctional organizations both directly and indirectly. Direct costsinclude sick pay, fringe benefits that still must be paid, overstaffing (scheduling
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additional workers to fill in for those employees who are absent) and overtime to fill the position.There are many positions in correctional facilities that cannot be vacated when anemployee calls in sick. This means that a person may be paid overtime to cover the position of the absent individual. The administration must spend time and effort to alter employee assignments to deal with the absence. Indirect costs include disruptions,reduced productivity, loss of expertise and experience, costs to monitor and administer the absence program, and resentment and decreased morale of other employees (Lambertet al., 2005). Absenteeism often creates a hardship for other employees, includingworking mandatory overtime and doing extra work because of the missing person.Absences can also result in resentment among attending employees who areshifted from one job to another, including to assignments that are less desirable or unfamiliar (Huczynski and Fitzpatrick, 1989). Even if the position is left vacant, theabsence means that there will be one fewer staff member able to monitor inmates andrespond to emergencies (Farkas, 1990). High levels of absenteeism can cause moraleamong employees to suffer, while also being costly and disruptive for the correctionalinstitution. In summary, absenteeism, particularly if it becomes commonplace, is harmfulto the overall health of a correctional organization.While the issue of absenteeism should be of concern in the field of corrections,only a handful of studies have been done on the subject. In a study of correctional stress,Gross et al. (1994) found that female correctional officers used more sick leave than malecorrectional officers. Among correctional officers at a New York State prison, Lombardo(1981) reported that job dissatisfaction was related to absenteeism, but only brieflydiscussed the matter.Venne (1997) explored the impact of 12-hour shifts on Canadian correctional officers andconcluded that the shifts increased absenteeism. Lambert (2001) theorized about theimportance of researching correctional staff absenteeism and postulated that job stress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment would be linked with correctional staff absenteeism. He also argued that it was important to determine how employees viewedthe use of sick leave and how they viewed the use and impact of sick leave in their  particular work areas.
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In a study of federal correctional staff, Lambert et al. (2005) observed that jobstress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment were associated with the use osick leave. Federal correctional staff who reported higher stress levels were more likely to be absent. Staff who were satisfied with their jobs and staff with greater commitment tothe Federal Bureau of Prisons used fewer sick leave hours. There is a need for moreresearch on correctional staff absenteeism. Without relevant studies, it is difficult tounderstand the correlates of correctional employee absenteeism and to develop possibleways to reduce it.It refers to workers absence from their regular task when he/she is normallyschedule to work. The according to Webster¶s dictionary
³Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and an absentee is onewho habitually stays away from work.´According to Labor Bureau of Shimla: - Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absence as percentage of total number of man shifts scheduled to work. Inother words, it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he isscheduled to be at work. Any employee may stay away from work if he hastaken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or some accident or without any previous sanction of leave. Thus absence may be authorized or unauthorized, willful or caused by circumstances beyond one¶s control.Maybe even worse than absenteeism, it is obvious that people such as malingerersand those unwilling to play their part in the workplace can also have a decidedlynegative impact.Indeed, as prevention is better than cure, where such a problem occurs, it isalways important to review recruitment procedures to identify how such individualscame to be employed in the first place.For any business owner or manager, to cure excessive absenteeism, it is essentialto find and then eliminate the causes of discontent among team members.

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