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Table Of Contents

Functional types
Design and construction
Materials used
1.4.31700–1800
Background
Organization of trades
1.5The nineteenth century
Tools and techniques
1.6The twentieth century
Context
1.7Conclusion
Bibliography
2.1Introduction to wood as material
Wood and wooden structures
2.2.1Gross features
Grain
Texture
Colour
2.2.2Wood anatomy: softwoods
2.2.3Cell structure: hardwoods
2.2.4Wood identification
2.2.5Hand–lens examination
2.2.6Microscopic examination
2.2.7Other methods
2.3Chemical nature of wood
2.4.1Hygroscopicity
2.4.3Dimensional change
2.5Mechanical properties
2.5.2Relative strength properties
2.6Manufactured timber products
2.6.1Veneers
2.7Wooden structures
2.7.1Types of joints
2.7.3Dovetail joints
2.7.4Mortise and tenon joints
2.7.5Other joint types
3.1Introduction to upholstery
3.1.2Historical development
3.1.3Technical examination
3.2Top surface/simple structures
Leather
Parchment
Skins ‘in the hair’
Rush
Wicker
Reed
Splints
3.2.3Textiles
Fibres
Dyes and dyeing
Polystyrene
Oil cloths
Rubber cloths
Cellulose nitrate
3.3Hardware
3.4.1Fillings
Animal materials
Vegetable materials
3.5Support systems
3.5.1Webbing
3.5.2Springs
3.6Adhesives
4.1Plastics and polymers
4.1.1Chemical structure
4.1.2Physical properties
4.3.2Strength and elasticity
4.3.3Barrier properties
4.3.4Optical properties
4.4.1Supports
Stoppings
Grain fillers
4.4.2Grounds
Gesso grounds
Bole
Composition
4.4.3Paints and paint media
4.4.4Transparent coatings
Historical use of varnishes
4.4.5Gilding
4.4.6Oriental lacquer (urushi)
Preparing the lacquer
Refining raw lacquer
Making a cured film
Decoration
Identification
4.4.7Japanning
4.5Adhesives
Starved joints
Roughening surfaces
Health and safety
Relativity of choice factors
4.5.3Hot melt adhesives
4.5.4Contact cements
4.6Consolidants
4.7.1Oils and fats
4.7.2Waxes
Animal waxes
Plant waxes
Mineral waxes
Commercial products
Alginates
4.7.4Proteins
Collagen
Albumins
Casein and milk
4.7.5Natural resins and lacquers
Shellac
4.7.6Synthetic materials
Thermoplastics
Poly(vinyl acetate) PVAC
Poly(vinyl alcohol)
Poly(vinyl acetals)
Acrylics
Cyclohexanone resins
Cellulose nitrates
Alkyds
Epoxies
Other materials and structures
Bone and antler
Ivory substitutes
General information
Horn
Properties
5.3Mollusc shell
5.4Paper and paper products
5.5Metals
Iron and steel
Copper alloys
Common white metals
Gold leaf
Shell and powdered gold
Identification of metals
Dating metals
5.6Ceramics and glass
Flat glass
5.7Stone and related materials
Marble
5.8.1Colour
5.8.2Pigments
Chemical properties
Physical properties
5.8.3Dyes
5.8.4Stains
6.1Introduction
6.1.2Use versus preservation
Change and damage
6.2The environment
6.2.1Background chemistry
6.2.2Light
Reciprocity
Control of light
Lighting and heating
6.2.3Heat
Measuring RH
RH and damage
Control of RH
6.2.5Pollution
Particulate pollution
Gaseous pollution
6.2.6Biological agents
Fungi
Insects
Touch
Clothing
The actual move
Protection of objects
Damage
Stores and storage
6.3Disaster preparation
6.3.1Disaster planning
Prevention
Preparation
6.3.2When a disaster occurs
6.3.3After a disaster
Seasoning defects
Light
Heat
Moisture
Pollution
7.3.3Loose and broken joints
Carcase furniture
Oxidation
Prevention and care
8.9.1The support
8.9.2The ground
8.9.3The paint
8.9.5Gilding
8.9.6Oriental lacquer
8.9.7Japanning
8.10Adhesives
8.11.1Oils and fats
8.11.2Waxes
8.11.4Proteins
8.11.6Synthetic materials
Rush, reed and cane
Textiles
Chemical degradation
Biodeterioration
Structure of textiles
Dyes and finishes
Plastics
Rubber
Polyurethanes
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
Trimmings
Understructures
Hardware
9.1Context
9.1.1Historical background
Conservation preliminaries
9.1.3Professional organizations
9.2Ethics
The V&A ethics checklist
9.3Examination
9.3.1Purpose of examination
9.3.2What to look for
Structural damage
Surface effects
9.3.3Methods of examination
Estimating
Gross examination
Simple mechanical tests
Microscopic examination
Sampling
Dating methods
9.4Documentation
9.4.2Information needs
9.4.3Documentation methods
9.4.5Photography
The film
The light source
Alternative light sources
The camera
9.5Studio organization and layout
Dismantling the object
Re-assembly
Finishing and colouring
Entrance/loading bay
Object storage
The main work area
Machine room
The wood store
Upholstery workshop
Metalworking area
Recreational areas
Storage
Wet areas
Electrical power supply
Extraction
Generic assessments
Step 3: Evaluate the risks
The hierarchy of control
The life cycle of control
Duties of employees
Labelling and signage
Fire prevention
Fire precautions
10.2.4Reinforcing joints
10.2.5Frames
Handling mirror frames
10.3Repair by damage type
10.3.1Loose and broken joints
10.3.3Hinges
10.3.4Warping
10.3.5Breaks and losses
10.3.6Faulty construction
10.4Veneer, marquetry and boulle
10.4.1Laying veneer
10.4.2Cleaning
10.4.3Consolidation
10.4.5Replacing losses
10.4.6Lifting original veneer
10.5Moulding and casting
10.5.1General procedure
10.5.2Selection of materials
10.5.3Release agents
10.5.4Making a mould
10.5.5Colorants and fillers
10.5.6Finishing
10.5.7Gilders composition
Ingredients
Mixing
Principles of cleaning
11.1Preliminaries
11.1.1Cleaning objectives
11.1.2Examination
11.1.3Pre-cleaning checklist
11.1.4General approach
11.1.5Cleaning tests
11.1.6Dirt
11.2Mechanical cleaning
11.2.1Dusting
11.2.2Cleaving
11.2.3Abrasives
11.2.4Dry cleaning methods
11.3Solvent cleaning
Hydrocarbon solvents
Chlorinated hydrocarbons
Alcohols
Aldehydes and ketones
Ethers
Esters
Viscosity
Toxicity
Flammability
11.3.3Solubility
Process of dissolution
Solubility parameters
Predicting solubility
Solvent removal of varnish
Mixing solvents
11.3.4Proprietary paint strippers
11.4Chemical cleaning
11.4.2Ka and pKa
11.4.3Acids
11.4.4Bases
11.5Aqueous cleaning
11.5.1pH and aqueous cleaning
11.5.2pH buffers
Choosing a buffer
Detergents
Choosing a detergent
11.5.5Chelating agents
Formation constants
11.5.6Enzymes
11.5.7Blanching and blooming
11.6.2Gelling materials
Clays
Cellulose ethers
12.1Basic principles
12.1.1Making solutions
Concentration
Molar solutions
Dilution
12.2Consolidation
12.2.3Consolidation of wood
Application techniques
Facing
12.3Aesthetic reintegration
12.3.1Fills
Introduction to filling
Fill materials
12.3.2Retouching
Materials for retouching
Making paint tablets
Commercial preparations
12.4Coatings
12.4.1Introduction to coatings
12.4.2Saturation and gloss
Refractive index
Gloss
Molecular weight
12.4.5Stabilizers
12.4.6Selecting a coating
12.4.7Coating materials
Natural resins
Brush application
Spray application
13.1.2Revivers
13.2Cleaning
13.3Selective layer removal
13.4Surface blemishes
13.4.1Dents and scratches
13.4.2Watermarks
13.4.3In-filling varnish losses
13.5.2Surface preparation
Precautionary measures
Bleaches
13.5.4Grain fillers
13.5.6Colour matching methods
Applying pigments
Applying stains
Sealing coats
13.6Treatment of degraded varnish
13.7.1Non-traditional materials
13.7.2Traditional materials
Oils
French polishing
Glazing
13.10Distressing
14.1Background
14.1.1Water and oil gilding
Introduction to traditional gilding
14.1.2Tools for gilding
14.1.3Gold and metal leaf
14.1.5Gesso putty
14.2Water gilding
14.2.1Conditions for gilding
14.2.3Preparation of glue size
14.2.4Assessing gel strength
14.2.6Gesso
14.2.7Application of gesso
14.2.8Faults in the gesso
14.2.9Smoothing the gesso
14.2.10Decorative details
14.2.11Recutting
14.2.12Yellow ochre
14.2.13Bole
14.2.15Faulting
14.2.16Matte water gilding
14.2.17Double gilding
14.2.18Burnishing
14.2.19Punched decoration
14.2.20Coatings
14.3.1Mordants for oil gilding
14.3.3Applying the oil size
14.3.4Applying gold leaf
14.3.5Coatings
14.4Composition
15.1.1Ivory, bone and antler
Cleaning
Conserving other materials I
Staining
Consolidation
Humidification
Adhesives
Replacements
Staining ivory
Polychrome ivory
Coatings
Antler
Repair and replacement
15.1.2Turtleshell and horn
Replacing losses
15.1.3Mother-of-pearl
15.2.1Labels
15.2.2Paper liners
15.3Metals
15.3.1Introduction
Patina
Removal of metal fittings
15.3.2Cleaning
15.3.4Rinsing and drying
15.3.5Repairs
15.3.6Replacement elements
Method of application
Preferential corrosion
15.3.8Ferrous metals
Patination of iron
Rust converters
15.3.9Brass and bronze
Stabilization
Stress corrosion cracking
15.3.10Ormolu
15.3.11Silver
Reshaping
Prevention of tarnish
15.3.12Lead
15.4Ceramics and enamels
15.4.1Cleaning
15.4.2Bonding
Infills
Backing materials
16.4.2Parchment and vellum
Repair and support
16.4.3Shagreen
Lifting edges and tears
16.5Textiles
16.5.1Cleaning
16.5.2Loose and lifting linings
16.6Painted furniture
16.6.2Cleaning
16.6.3Removal of varnish
Mechanical removal
Solvents
Alkaline reagents
Aqueous methods
16.6.4Removal of overpaint
16.6.5Consolidation
16.6.6Reintegration
16.6.7Coatings
16.6.8Matte paint
16.7Japanned furniture
16.7.1Introduction to japanning
16.7.2Examination of objects
16.7.3Cleaning
16.7.5Consolidation
16.7.6Infilling
Fills for grounds
Fills for papier mâché
Fills for japanned layers
16.7.7Varnishes
16.8Lacquered (urushi) furniture
16.8.2Handling lacquer
16.8.5Cleaning
Potential problems
16.8.6Consolidation
Shell inlay
16.8.7Infilling
16.8.8Retouching
16.8.10Coatings
16.9Gilded furniture
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Conservation of Furniture

Conservation of Furniture

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Published by: dujerest on Jun 16, 2011
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