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Fiber Optic Sensor

Fiber Optic Sensor

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Published by Fahru Din Ahmad

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Published by: Fahru Din Ahmad on Jun 16, 2011
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01/17/2013

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Fiber Optic Sensors(F.O.S)
Presented by:
Mohamed Yousef Mousa Wesamal-Dmour Yousef Abu-Risheh
 Jan-2006
1.Introduction2.Basic Concept3.Intensiometric Fiber Optic Sensor4.Interferometric Fiber Optic Sensor5.Application6.Appendix
1
 
1.Introduction
Over the past twenty years; two major product revolutions have taken place due to thegrowth of the optoelectronics and fiber optic communications industries.The optoelectronics industry has brought about such products as compact disc players,laser printers, bar code scanners and laser pointers. The fiber optic communicationindustry has literally revolutionized the telecommunication industry by providinghigher performance, more reliable telecommunication links with ever decreasing bandwidth cost. This revolution is bringing about the benefits of high volume production to component users and a true information superhighway built of glass.In parallel with these developments
F.O.S
technology has been a major user of technology associated with the optoelectronic and fiber optic communication industry.Many of the components associated with these industries were often developed for 
F.O.S
applications.
F.O.S
technology in turn has often been driven by thedevelopment and subsequent mass production of components to support theseindustries.The advantages of 
F.O.S
are freedom from EMI, wide bandwidth, compactness,geometric versatility and economy. In general, FOS is characterized by highsensitivity when compared to other types of sensors. It is also passive in nature due tothe dielectric construction.
2.Basic Concept:
The fiber optic communication system has, as its most basic arrangement,
a lightsource
,
an active or electro-optic modulator
,
the optical fiber
, and
a detector
.This also would comprise the basis of a
F.O.S
system, except that a
passivemodulator
or a sort of measurement device replaces
the electro-optic modulator
.The light source is most commonly a light emitting diode (LED) or laser diode. Thelight proceeds through the fiber under the principles of total internal reflection. Thenthe light is collected with a photodiode, CCD array, or other electronic light detectiondevice. In the case of measuring strain, temperature, pressure etc., the need arises for a method of modulating the light with the desired physical parameter. A
F.O.S
measures its environment through physical mechanisms that modulate the light signal.This can be achieved through the fiber itself in the case of an
intrinsic sensor
, or outside the fiber as in an
extrinsic sensor
. Various
F.O.S
can be organized intovarious groups by the method in which they measure physical parameters.2
 
There are three basic ways to classify
fiber optic sensors
,
Class 1: (Sensor Configuration)
 Intrinsic Sensor:
 
The fiber itself acts as the sensing medium, i.e., the propagatinglight never leaves the fiber and is altered in some way by an externalphenomenon.
Intrinsic sensors are generally classified as
distributed sensors
,which means that measurements can be made anywhere along the fiberaxis
Figure 1 :
Intrinsic
fiber optic sensors
 
 Extrinsic Sensor:
The fiber merely acts as a light delivery and collection system (asBlack Box), i.e., the propagating light leaves the fiber, is altered in someway, and is collected by the same (or another) fiber.
Extrinsic sensors are usually located in specific locations, and assuch are classified as
localized sensors
.
Figure 2:
Extrinsic
fiber optic sensors
 
3

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