Thus, the original principal purpose of Statistik was data to be used by governmental and (oftencentralized) administrative bodies. The collection of data about states and localities continues,largely through national and international statistical services. In particular, censuses provideregular information about the population.
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It dealswith all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the designof surveys and experiments.A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the ways of thinkingnecessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained thisexperience through working in any of a wide number of fields. There is also a disciplinecalled mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject.The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statisticsis an art." This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (suchas mean or median) calculated from a set of data,
whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seemswrong" or "these statistics are misleading").
Statistics rarely give a simple Yes/No type answer to the question asked of them.Interpretation often comes down to the level of statistical significance applied to the numbers andoften refers to the probability of a value accurately rejecting the null hypothesis (sometimesreferred to as the p-value).Referring to statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the overall result issignificant in real world terms. For example, in a large study of a drug it may be shown that thedrug has a statistically significant but very small beneficial effect, such that the drug will beunlikely to help the patient in a noticeable way.
Population and Sampl
A population is a collection of data whose properties are analyzed. The population isthe complete collection to be studied; it contains all subjects of interest.