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ate cleng

ate cleng

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Published by Randy Ratio

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Published by: Randy Ratio on Jun 17, 2011
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History of statistics
By the 18th century, the term "statistics" designated the systematiccollection of demographic and economic data by states. In the early 19th century, the meaning of "statistics" broadened, then including the discipline concerned with the collection, summary, andanalysis of data. Today statistics is widely employed in government, business, and all thesciences. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation, and have allowedstatisticians to develop "computer-intensive" methods.The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theoriesof probability and statistical inference, which are used in statistical practice. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late, however. In the 19th century,statistics increasingly used probability theory, whose initial results were found in the 17th and18th centuries, particularly in the analysis of games of chance (gambling). By 1800, astronomyused probability models and statistical theories, particularly the method of least squares, whichwas invented by Legendre and Gauss. Early probability theory and statistics was systematizedand extended by Laplace; following Laplace, probability and statistics have been in continualdevelopment. In the 19th century, social scientists used statistical reasoning and probabilitymodels to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology; physicalscientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciencesof thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The development of statistical reasoning wasclosely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method.Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science,like computer science or operations research. Unlike mathematics, statistics had its originsin public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics. Beingconcerned with the scientific method and inductive logic, statistical theory has close associationwith the philosophy of science; with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions, statistics has great overlap with the decision and microeconomics. With its concernswith data, statistics has overlap with information science and computer science.The term statistics is ultimately derived from the New Latin statisticumcollegium ("council of state") and the Italian word statista ("statesman" or "politician").The German Statistik, first introduced by Gottfried Achenwall (1749), originally designated theanalysis of data about the state, signifying the "science of state" (then called politicalarithmetic in English). It acquired the meaning of the collection and classification of datagenerally in the early 19th century. It was introduced into English in 1791 by Sir JohnSinclair when he published the first of 21 volumes titled Statistical Account of Scotland.
Thus, the original principal purpose of Statistik was data to be used by governmental and (oftencentralized) administrative bodies. The collection of data about states and localities continues,largely through national and international statistical services. In particular, censuses provideregular information about the population.
Statistics is the study of the collection, organization, and interpretation of data. It dealswith all aspects of this, including the planning of data collection in terms of the designof surveys and experiments.A statistician is someone who is particularly well versed in the ways of thinkingnecessary for the successful application of statistical analysis. Such people have often gained thisexperience through working in any of a wide number of fields. There is also a disciplinecalled mathematical statistics, which is concerned with the theoretical basis of the subject.The word statistics, when referring to the scientific discipline, is singular, as in "Statisticsis an art." This should not be confused with the word statistic, referring to a quantity (suchas mean or median) calculated from a set of data,
whose plural is statistics ("this statistic seemswrong" or "these statistics are misleading").
Statistics rarely give a simple Yes/No type answer to the question asked of them.Interpretation often comes down to the level of statistical significance applied to the numbers andoften refers to the probability of a value accurately rejecting the null hypothesis (sometimesreferred to as the p-value).Referring to statistical significance does not necessarily mean that the overall result issignificant in real world terms. For example, in a large study of a drug it may be shown that thedrug has a statistically significant but very small beneficial effect, such that the drug will beunlikely to help the patient in a noticeable way.
Population and Sampl
A population is a collection of data whose properties are analyzed. The population isthe complete collection to be studied; it contains all subjects of interest.

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