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Complex Analysis

# Complex Analysis

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06/17/2011

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Complex Analysis
Richard F. BassThese notes arec
2006 by Richard F. Bass. They may be used for personal orclassroom purposes, but not for commercial purposes.
1. The algebra of complex numbers.
Let (
a,b
)
R
×
R
be pairs of real numbers with addition deﬁned by (
a,b
)+(
c,d
) =(
a
+
c,b
+
d
) and multiplication deﬁned by (
a,b
)
·
(
c,d
) = (
ac
bd,bc
+
).
Proposition 1.1.
R
×
R
with these operations forms a ﬁeld. The additive identity is
(0
,
0)
and multiplicative identity is
(1
,
0)
.
Proof.
The only thing to check is the existence of a multiplicative inverse. If (
a,b
)
= (0
,
0),then a calculation shows that (
aa
2
+
b
2
,
ba
2
+
b
2
) times (
a,b
) yields (1
,
0).We write
a
+
bi
for (
a,b
) and let
C
=
{
a
+
bi
:
a,b
R
}
. We can identify
R
with
{
a
+ 0
i
}
. Note also that
i
2
= (0
,
1)
·
(0
,
1) =
1. We usually write
wz
for
w
·
z
when
w,z
C
.We deﬁne
z
=
a
bi
if
z
=
a
+
bi
, and this is called the complex conjugate of
z
. Welet Re
z
=
a,
Im
z
=
b
, for
z
=
a
+
bi
. It is easy to check that
w
+
z
=
w
+
z
and
wz
=
wz
.We deﬁne
|
z
|
=
a
2
+
b
2
. It is then apparent that
|
z
|
0 and
|
z
|
2
=
zz
. Note that
|
ab
|
2
=
abab
=
aabb
=
|
a
|
2
|
b
|
2
, or
|
ab
|
=
|
a
||
b
|
.Note also that
|
a
+
b
|
2
= (
a
+
b
)(
a
+
b
) =
aa
+
bb
+ 2Re
ab
. It is clear that
−|
z
|
Re
z
|
z
|
and
−|
z
|
Im
z
|
z
|
. Using this, we obtain
|
a
+
b
|
2
(
|
a
|
+
|
b
|
)
2
, or
|
a
+
b
||
a
|
+
|
b
|
.
Cauchy’s inequality is the following.
Proposition 1.2.
n
i
=1
a
i
b
i
2
n
i
=1
|
a
i
|
2
n
i
=1
|
b
i
|
2
.
Proof.
The result if obvious if
|
b
i
|
2
= 0, so suppose not. We have0
n
i
=1
|
a
i
λb
i
|
2
=
|
a
i
|
2
+
|
λ
|
2
|
b
i
|
2
2Re
λ
a
i
b
i
1

for any complex number
λ
. Taking
λ
=
a
i
b
i
/
|
b
i
|
2
and doing some algebra, we obtainthe inequality we seek.
2. The geometry of complex numbers.
A complex number
z
=
a
+
bi
is identiﬁed with (
a,b
)
R
2
. We can thus identify acomplex number with a point in the plane. If we let
r
=
|
z
|
=
a
2
+
b
2
and
ϕ
the anglebetween the
x
axis and the ray from 0 to
z
, measured in a counterclockwise direction fromthe
x
axis, then
z
in polar coordinates is (
r,ϕ
), and we have
a
=
r
cos
ϕ
,
b
=
r
sin
ϕ
. Wedeﬁne arg
z
, the argument of
z
, to be
ϕ
.If
z
1
=
r
1
(cos
ϕ
1
+
i
sin
ϕ
1
) and
z
2
=
r
2
(cos
ϕ
2
+
i
sin
ϕ
2
), then a calculation togetherwith some trigonometry identities shows that
z
1
z
2
=
r
1
r
2
[(cos
ϕ
1
cos
ϕ
2
sin
ϕ
1
sin
ϕ
2
) +
i
(sin
ϕ
1
cos
ϕ
2
+ sin
ϕ
2
cos
ϕ
1
)]=
r
1
r
2
[cos(
ϕ
1
+
ϕ
2
) +
i
sin(
ϕ
1
+
ϕ
2
)]
.
We deducearg(
z
1
z
2
) = arg
z
1
+ arg
z
2
.
We will later give an analytic proof of this fact. However this is useful in doingcalculations. For example, the above plus induction shows that
z
n
=
r
n
(cos(
) +
i
sin(
))
.
To ﬁnd the
n
th root of
a
=
ρ
(cos
θ
+
i
sin
θ
), we set
z
n
=
a
, and comparing we ﬁnd that
r
=
ρ
1
/n
=
|
a
|
1
/n
and
ϕ
= arg
z
=
θ/n
= (arg
a
)
/n
. For example,
i
has modulus 1 andargument
π/
2. So
i
will have modulus 1 and argument
π/
4, hence
i
=
22
+
i
22
.Sometimes we want to introduce a point at inﬁnity
, and we refer to
C
∪{∞}
as the extended complex plane. We can give a geometric interpretation of the extendedplane through what is known as the stereographic projection. Consider the unit sphere
=
{
(
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
)
R
3
:
x
21
+
x
22
+
x
23
= 1
}
. To every point of
with the exception of (0
,
0
,
1) (the north pole), we associate the complex number
z
= (
x
1
+
ix
2
)
/
(1
x
3
). Somealgebra shows that
|
z
|
2
=
x
21
+
x
22
(1
x
3
)
2
=1 +
x
3
1
x
3
,
and so
x
3
=
|
z
|
2
1
|
z
|
2
+ 1
.
More algebra shows that
x
1
=
z
+
z
1 +
|
z
|
2
, x
2
=
z
zi
(1 +
|
z
|
2
)
.
2

We then associate
to the point (0
,
0
,
1).The line through (0
,
0
,
1) and (
z
1
,z
2
,z
3
) is
{
(
tz
1
,tz
2
,t
(
z
3
1)+1 :
t
R
}
, and thisline crosses the plane
x
y
plane when
t
= 1
/
(1
z
3
), so
x
=
z
1
1
z
3
, y
=
z
2
1
z
3
.
This agrees with the equations above, so if we identify the complex plane with the (
x
1
,x
2
)plane, and
z
=
x
+
iy
, then the points (
x,y,
0), (
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
), and (0
,
0
,
1) are on a straightline. Thus drawing a straight line from the north pole of
through the point (
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
)on
and extending it to the (
x
1
,x
2
) plane, the intersection with the (
x
1
,x
2
) plane is thepoint
z
.
3. Analytic functions.
The deﬁnition of limit and of continuous function needs no modiﬁcation from thereal case. We deﬁne the derivative of a function
:
C
C
to be
(
z
) = lim
h
0
(
z
+
h
)
(
z
)
h.
The diﬀerence with the real case is that we require the limit to exist as
h
0 in
C
. Inother words, given
ε >
0 there exists
δ
such that
|
(
z
+
h
)
(
z
)
h
(
z
)
|
< ε
whenever
h
C
and
|
h
|
< δ
.A function
is analytic or holomorphic if
(
z
) exists whenever
is deﬁned.
Proposition 3.1.
(The Cauchy-Riemann equations)
Suppose
(
z
) =
u
(
z
) +
iv
(
z
)
and
exists at
z
. Then
∂u∂x
(
z
) =
∂v∂y
(
z
)
,∂u∂y
(
z
) =
∂v∂x
(
z
)
.
Proof.
If
(
z
) =
u
(
z
) +
iv
(
z
),
(
z
) exists, and we take the limit as
h
0 with
h
real,then
(
z
) =
∂u∂x
+
i∂v∂x.
If we let
h
=
ik
with
k
real and let
k
0, we similarly obtain
(
z
) = lim
k
0
(
z
+
ik
)
(
z
)
ik
=
i∂u∂y
+
∂v∂y.
Equating the two expressions for
(
z
), we obtain our result.Note
|
(
z
)
|
2
=
∂u∂x∂v∂y
∂u∂y∂v∂x,
3