for any complex number
λ
. Taking
λ
=
a
i
b
i
/

b
i

2
and doing some algebra, we obtainthe inequality we seek.
2. The geometry of complex numbers.
A complex number
z
=
a
+
bi
is identiﬁed with (
a,b
)
∈
R
2
. We can thus identify acomplex number with a point in the plane. If we let
r
=

z

=
√
a
2
+
b
2
and
ϕ
the anglebetween the
x
axis and the ray from 0 to
z
, measured in a counterclockwise direction fromthe
x
axis, then
z
in polar coordinates is (
r,ϕ
), and we have
a
=
r
cos
ϕ
,
b
=
r
sin
ϕ
. Wedeﬁne arg
z
, the argument of
z
, to be
ϕ
.If
z
1
=
r
1
(cos
ϕ
1
+
i
sin
ϕ
1
) and
z
2
=
r
2
(cos
ϕ
2
+
i
sin
ϕ
2
), then a calculation togetherwith some trigonometry identities shows that
z
1
z
2
=
r
1
r
2
[(cos
ϕ
1
cos
ϕ
2
−
sin
ϕ
1
sin
ϕ
2
) +
i
(sin
ϕ
1
cos
ϕ
2
+ sin
ϕ
2
cos
ϕ
1
)]=
r
1
r
2
[cos(
ϕ
1
+
ϕ
2
) +
i
sin(
ϕ
1
+
ϕ
2
)]
.
We deducearg(
z
1
z
2
) = arg
z
1
+ arg
z
2
.
We will later give an analytic proof of this fact. However this is useful in doingcalculations. For example, the above plus induction shows that
z
n
=
r
n
(cos(
nϕ
) +
i
sin(
nϕ
))
.
To ﬁnd the
n
th root of
a
=
ρ
(cos
θ
+
i
sin
θ
), we set
z
n
=
a
, and comparing we ﬁnd that
r
=
ρ
1
/n
=

a

1
/n
and
ϕ
= arg
z
=
θ/n
= (arg
a
)
/n
. For example,
i
has modulus 1 andargument
π/
2. So
√
i
will have modulus 1 and argument
π/
4, hence
√
i
=
√
22
+
i
√
22
.Sometimes we want to introduce a point at inﬁnity
∞
, and we refer to
C
∪{∞}
as the extended complex plane. We can give a geometric interpretation of the extendedplane through what is known as the stereographic projection. Consider the unit sphere
S
=
{
(
x
1
,x
2
,x
3
)
∈
R
3
:
x
21
+
x
22
+
x
23
= 1
}
. To every point of
S
with the exception of (0
,
0
,
1) (the north pole), we associate the complex number
z
= (
x
1
+
ix
2
)
/
(1
−
x
3
). Somealgebra shows that

z

2
=
x
21
+
x
22
(1
−
x
3
)
2
=1 +
x
3
1
−
x
3
,
and so
x
3
=

z

2
−
1

z

2
+ 1
.
More algebra shows that
x
1
=
z
+
z
1 +

z

2
, x
2
=
z
−
zi
(1 +

z

2
)
.
2