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Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V. Toxicology of nanomaterials and environment. - Ecologica. 2011.Ecotoxicology,nanomaterials,environment, http://www.scribd.com/doc/58103094/

Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V. Toxicology of nanomaterials and environment. - Ecologica. 2011.Ecotoxicology,nanomaterials,environment, http://www.scribd.com/doc/58103094/

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Published by Sergei Ostroumov
http://www.scribd.com/doc/58103094/
http://scipeople.ru/publication/102825/
Published in scientific journal ‘Ecologica’, 2011:
[Опубликовано в журнале Ecologica (орган общества охраны окружающей среды Сербии, г. Белград)]:
Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V. Toxicology of nanomaterials and environment. - Ecologica. 2011, vol. 18, issue 61, pp. 3-10.
article language: English;
Review Paper.
**
TOXICOLOGY OF NANOMATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENT
S.A. Ostroumov, S.V. Kotelevtsev
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Lengory, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Keywords: nanomaterials, nanoparticles, toxicity, ecotoxicity, nanotoxicity, bioassay, biotesting, assessment of environmental hazards, nanotechnology, metal oxides, environmental toxicology, environmental pollution, biochemical ecology;
- ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanoparticles demonstrated a variety of biological activities, including toxicity. The goal of this review articles is to summarize some evidence of a variety of toxic effects produced by manufactured nanoparticles, including both the data from literature and the new data of the authors (e.g., [42]). The toxicity of nanomaterials was shown both to prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. As for eukaryotic organisms, toxicity was found in bioassays with both animal and plant test systems. In further studies, it is necessary to continue the studies of various aspects of toxicity of nanoparticles, and to extend the range of organisms and test systems that are being used for assessing the biological effects of nanomaterials. The methods that were previously developed to study phytotoxicity of chemicals [15-28, 48] will be useful to generate new data on toxicology of nanomaterials.

INTRODUCTION.
Manufactured nanoparticles (NP) and nanomaterials (nanometer materials) are a new type of man-made chemical products that are produced in significant amounts and finally may enter the environment [1]. Their toxic and ecotoxicological characteristics should be studied in detail.
The goal of this review is to summarize some evidence of a variety of toxic effects produced by manufactured nanoparticles and nanomaterials.
In this paper, we used many publications in the international scientific literature (cited in the list of references), and our own data on plants. Among many sources, especially useful was the paper by Jiang et al. (2009) [2].

TOXICITY OF NANOPARTICLES.
There are many publications that reported various types of toxicity produced by nanoparticles. Some of the examples are summarized in Table 1. The results are commented below in the text following table 1.
Table 1. Toxicity of nanoparticles to eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms and cells (examples)
Biological objects Type of NP Comments References
Rat liver cell (BRL 3A rat liver cells) Ag NP In vitro toxicity: mitochondrial function (MTT assay): mitochondrial function decreased significantly in cells exposed to Ag nanoparticles at 5–50 μg/ml; significant depletion of GSH level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in ROS levels;. Hussain et al., 2005 [3]
Rat liver cell NP: Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 NP Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 had no measurable effect at lower doses (10–50 μg/ml) [3]
Rat liver cell NP: Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 NP Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2: there was a significant effect at higher levels (100–250 μg/ml) [3]
Rat liver cell membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay): LDH leakage significantly increased in cells exposed to Ag nanoparticles (10–50 μg/ml) [3]
Rat liver cell NP: Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 the other nanoparticles tested displayed LDH leakage only at higher doses (100–250 μg/ml) [3]
Mammalian cell lines Oxide NPs In vitro toxicity; comparison to asbestos, silica; effect of particle solubility was studied; Brunner et al., 2006 [4]
Mammalian cell lines Oxide NP silica nanoparticles; in vitro cytotoxicity was studied; Chang et al. , 2007 [5]
Algae Oxide NP ZnO NP, also bulk ZnO, and ZnCl
http://www.scribd.com/doc/58103094/
http://scipeople.ru/publication/102825/
Published in scientific journal ‘Ecologica’, 2011:
[Опубликовано в журнале Ecologica (орган общества охраны окружающей среды Сербии, г. Белград)]:
Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V. Toxicology of nanomaterials and environment. - Ecologica. 2011, vol. 18, issue 61, pp. 3-10.
article language: English;
Review Paper.
**
TOXICOLOGY OF NANOMATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENT
S.A. Ostroumov, S.V. Kotelevtsev
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Lengory, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Keywords: nanomaterials, nanoparticles, toxicity, ecotoxicity, nanotoxicity, bioassay, biotesting, assessment of environmental hazards, nanotechnology, metal oxides, environmental toxicology, environmental pollution, biochemical ecology;
- ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanoparticles demonstrated a variety of biological activities, including toxicity. The goal of this review articles is to summarize some evidence of a variety of toxic effects produced by manufactured nanoparticles, including both the data from literature and the new data of the authors (e.g., [42]). The toxicity of nanomaterials was shown both to prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. As for eukaryotic organisms, toxicity was found in bioassays with both animal and plant test systems. In further studies, it is necessary to continue the studies of various aspects of toxicity of nanoparticles, and to extend the range of organisms and test systems that are being used for assessing the biological effects of nanomaterials. The methods that were previously developed to study phytotoxicity of chemicals [15-28, 48] will be useful to generate new data on toxicology of nanomaterials.

INTRODUCTION.
Manufactured nanoparticles (NP) and nanomaterials (nanometer materials) are a new type of man-made chemical products that are produced in significant amounts and finally may enter the environment [1]. Their toxic and ecotoxicological characteristics should be studied in detail.
The goal of this review is to summarize some evidence of a variety of toxic effects produced by manufactured nanoparticles and nanomaterials.
In this paper, we used many publications in the international scientific literature (cited in the list of references), and our own data on plants. Among many sources, especially useful was the paper by Jiang et al. (2009) [2].

TOXICITY OF NANOPARTICLES.
There are many publications that reported various types of toxicity produced by nanoparticles. Some of the examples are summarized in Table 1. The results are commented below in the text following table 1.
Table 1. Toxicity of nanoparticles to eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms and cells (examples)
Biological objects Type of NP Comments References
Rat liver cell (BRL 3A rat liver cells) Ag NP In vitro toxicity: mitochondrial function (MTT assay): mitochondrial function decreased significantly in cells exposed to Ag nanoparticles at 5–50 μg/ml; significant depletion of GSH level, reduced mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in ROS levels;. Hussain et al., 2005 [3]
Rat liver cell NP: Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 NP Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 had no measurable effect at lower doses (10–50 μg/ml) [3]
Rat liver cell NP: Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 NP Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2: there was a significant effect at higher levels (100–250 μg/ml) [3]
Rat liver cell membrane leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay): LDH leakage significantly increased in cells exposed to Ag nanoparticles (10–50 μg/ml) [3]
Rat liver cell NP: Fe3O4, Al, MoO3 and TiO2 the other nanoparticles tested displayed LDH leakage only at higher doses (100–250 μg/ml) [3]
Mammalian cell lines Oxide NPs In vitro toxicity; comparison to asbestos, silica; effect of particle solubility was studied; Brunner et al., 2006 [4]
Mammalian cell lines Oxide NP silica nanoparticles; in vitro cytotoxicity was studied; Chang et al. , 2007 [5]
Algae Oxide NP ZnO NP, also bulk ZnO, and ZnCl

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Published by: Sergei Ostroumov on Jun 17, 2011
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Published in scientific journal
Ecologica
, 2011:[
Опубликовано
 
в журнале
Ecologica
(орган общества охраны окружающейсреды Сербии, г. Белград)
]:
Ostroumov S.A., Kotelevtsev S.V. Toxicology of nanomaterials and environment.- Ecologica. 2011, vol. 18, issue 61, pp. 3-10.
article language: English;Review Paper.
**TOXICOLOGY OF NANOMATERIALS AND ENVIRONMENTS.A. Ostroumov, S.V. Kotelevtsev
Faculty of Biology, Moscow State University, Lengory, Moscow 119991, Russian Federation;
Keywords
: nanomaterials, nanoparticles, toxicity, ecotoxicity, nanotoxicity, bioassay, biotesting,assessment of environmental hazards, nanotechnology, metal oxides, environmental toxicology,environmental pollution, biochemical ecology;
-
 
ABSTRACT: Manufactured nanoparticles demonstrated a variety of biological activities,including toxicity. The goal of this review articles is to summarize some evidence of avariety of toxic effects produced by manufactured nanoparticles, including both the datafrom literature and the new data of the authors (e.g., [42]). The toxicity of nanomaterialswas shown both to prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. As for eukaryotic organisms,toxicity was found in bioassays with both animal and plant test systems. In furtherstudies, it is necessary to continue the studies of various aspects of toxicity of nanoparticles, and to extend the range of organisms and test systems that are being usedfor assessing the biological effects of nanomaterials. The methods that were previouslydeveloped to study phytotoxicity of chemicals [15-28, 48] will be useful to generate newdata on toxicology of nanomaterials.
INTRODUCTION
.Manufactured nanoparticles (NP) and nanomaterials (nanometer materials) are a newtype of man-made chemical products that are produced in significant amounts and finally mayenter the environment [1]. Their toxic and ecotoxicological characteristics should be studied indetail.The goal of this review is to summarize some evidence of a variety of toxic effectsproduced by manufactured nanoparticles and nanomaterials.
 
In this paper, we used many publications in the international scientific literature (cited inthe list of references), and our own data on plants. Among many sources, especially useful wasthe paper by Jiang et al. (2009) [2].
TOXICITY OF NANOPARTICLES
.There are many publications that reported various types of toxicity produced bynanoparticles. Some of the examples are summarized in Table 1. The results are commentedbelow in the text following table 1.Table 1. Toxicity of nanoparticles to eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms and cells(examples)BiologicalobjectsType of NP Comments ReferencesRat liver cell(BRL 3A ratliver cells)Ag NP In vitro toxicity: mitochondrialfunction (MTT assay):mitochondrial function decreasedsignificantly in cells exposed toAg nanoparticles at 5
 – 
50
μ
g/ml;significant depletion of GSHlevel, reduced mitochondrialmembrane potential and increasein ROS levels;.Hussain et al.,2005 [3]Rat liver cell NP: Fe
3
O
4
, Al,MoO
3
and TiO
2
 NP Fe
3
O
4
, Al, MoO
3
and TiO
2
 had no measurable effect at lowerdoses (10
 – 
50
μ
g/ml)[3]Rat liver cell NP: Fe
3
O
4
, Al,MoO
3
and TiO
2
 NP Fe
3
O
4
, Al, MoO
3
and TiO
2
:there was a significant effect athigher levels (100
 – 
250
μ
g/ml)[3]Rat liver cell membrane leakage of lactatedehydrogenase (LDH assay):LDH leakage significantlyincreased in cells exposed to Agnanoparticles (10
 – 
50
μ
g/ml)[3]Rat liver cell NP: Fe
3
O
4
, Al,MoO
3
and TiO
2
 the other nanoparticles testeddisplayed LDH leakage only athigher doses (100
 – 
250
μ
g/ml)[3]Mammalian celllinesOxide NPs In vitro toxicity; comparison toasbestos, silica; effect of particleBrunner et al.,2006 [4]
 
solubility was studied;Mammalian celllinesOxide NP silica nanoparticles; in vitrocytotoxicity was studied;Chang et al. ,2007 [5]Algae Oxide NP ZnO NP, also bulk ZnO, andZnCl
2
; Freshwater microalgaePseudokirchneriella subcapitata;BP (bulk particles ) were alsotoxicFranklin et al.2007 [6]Higher plants Oxide NP, metalNP50% inhibitory concentrations(IC50) of nano-Zn and nano-ZnOwere estimated to be near 50mg/L for radish, and about 20mg/L for rape and ryegrassLin, Xing, 2007[7];Oxide NP ZnO NP Lin, Xing , 2008[8];Oxide NP NP of CuO Ostroumov S.A.,Xing B. New dataon toxicity toplant seedlings of Lens culinarisMedik.(Ostroumov, Xing, in preparation)Crustaceans Oxide NP,organic NPtitanium dioxide,nano-C60 and C60HxC70Hx;behavioral and physiologicalchanges in Daphnia magnaLovern, Strickler,2007 [9];Crustaceans Oxide NP ZnO, CuO, TiO
2
(nanosized andbulk), Daphnia magna andThamnocephalus platyurusHeinlaan etal.,2008 [10];bacteria Oxide NP MgO Stoimenov et al.2002 [11];bacteria Oxide NP ZnO, Escherichia coli in ultrafineZnO nanoparticles colloidalmediumBrayner et al.2006 [12];bacteria Oxide NP TiO
2
, SiO
2
, and ZnO(comparative eco-toxicity of Adams et al.,2006 [13];

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Online free. Environmental sciences, ecology, biology: scientific results obtained at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University, examples: A list of publications of a Fulbright Awardee, with sites of the full texts, selected: http://5bio5.blogspot.com/2013/06/online-free-environmental-sciences.html Environmental sciences, ecology, biology: scientific results obtained at M.V.Lomonosov Moscow State University: publications, aquatic ecosystems, water quality etc.: sites of the full texts, selected: http://www.scribd.com/doc/93423426
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