From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, seeEmotion (disambiguation).
is the complexpsychophysiologicalexperience of an individual's state of mind as interactingwithbiochemical(internal) andenvironmental(external) influences. Inhumans, emotion fundamentally involves "physiological
arousal, expressivebehaviors, andconscious experience".
Emotion is associatedwithmood,temperament,personalityanddisposition, andmotivation. The English word 'emotion' is derived from the French
. This is based on the Latin
-) means 'out' and
Therelated term "motivation" is also derived from the word
.No definitivetaxonomyof emotions exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include:
'Cognitive' versus 'non-cognitive' emotions
Instinctual emotions (from theamygdala), versus cognitive emotions (from theprefrontal cortex).
Categorization based on duration: Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example,surprise), whereas otherscan last years (for example,love). A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions.People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can havethe emotion without the corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior not to be essential to the emotion.TheJames-Lange theoryposits that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes.The
approach to emotions (for example,Nico FrijdaandFreitas-Magalhaes) holds that emotions have evolved for
a particular function, such as to keep the subject safe.