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Emotion

Emotion

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Published by: Kouassi Martinese Paraiso on Jun 17, 2011
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Emotion
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, seeEmotion (disambiguation).
Emotion
is the complexpsychophysiologicalexperience of an individual's state of mind as interactingwithbiochemical(internal) andenvironmental(external) influences. Inhumans, emotion fundamentally involves "physiological arousal, expressivebehaviors, andconscious experience".
[1]
Emotion is associatedwithmood,temperament,personalityanddisposition, andmotivation. The English word 'emotion' is derived from the French word
é
mouvoir 
. This is based on the Latin
emovere
, where
e-
(variant of 
ex 
-) means 'out' and
movere
means 'move'.
[2]
Therelated term "motivation" is also derived from the word
movere
.No definitivetaxonomyof emotions exists, though numerous taxonomies have been proposed. Some categorizations include:
 
'Cognitive' versus 'non-cognitive' emotions
 
Instinctual emotions (from theamygdala), versus cognitive emotions (from theprefrontal cortex).
 
Categorization based on duration: Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example,surprise), whereas otherscan last years (for example,love). A related distinction is between the emotion and the results of the emotion, principally behaviors and emotional expressions.People often behave in certain ways as a direct result of their emotional state, such as crying, fighting or fleeing. If one can havethe emotion without the corresponding behavior, then we may consider the behavior not to be essential to the emotion.TheJames-Lange theoryposits that emotional experience is largely due to the experience of bodily changes.The
fu
nctionalist
approach to emotions (for example,Nico FrijdaandFreitas-Magalhaes) holds that emotions have evolved for  a particular function, such as to keep the subject safe.
 
Contents
[hide]
 
1
Classification 
2
Theories 
o
 
2.1
Somatic theories 
 
2.1.1
James-Lange theory 
o
 
2.2
Neurobiological theories 
 
2.2.1
Prefrontal cortex 
 
2.2.2
Homeostatic emotion 
o
 
2.3
Cognitive theories 
 
2.3.1
Perceptual theory 
 
2.3.2
Affective events theory 
 
2.3.3
Cannon-Bard theory 
 
2.3.4
Two-factor theory 
 
 
2.3.5
Component process model 
3
Disciplinary approaches 
o
 
3.1
Evolutionary biology 
o
 
3.2
Sociology 
o
 
3.3
Psychotherapy 
o
 
3.4
Computer science 
4
Notable theorists 
5
See also 
6
References 
o
 
6
.1
Notes 
o
 
6
.2
Further reading 
7
External links 
[edit]
Classification
ain article:Emotion classification 
There are basic and complex categories, where some basic emotions can be modified in some way to form complexemotionsconditioning or association combined with the basic emotions. Alternatively, analogous to the wayprimarycolorscombine,
 primary emotions
could blend to form the full spectrum of human emotional experience. For exampleinterpersonalanger anddisgustcould blend to formcontempt.
[
citation needed 
]
 Robert Plutchikproposed a three-dimensional "circumplex model" which describes the relations among emotions. This model issimilar to a color wheel. The vertical dimension represents intensity, and the circle represents degrees of similarity among theemotions. He posited eight primary emotion dimensions arranged as four pairs of opposites. Some have also argued for theexistence of meta-emotionswhich are emotions about emotions.
[
citation needed 
]
  Another important means of distinguishing emotions concerns their occurrence in time. Some emotions occur over a period of seconds (for example,surprise), whereas others can last years (for example,love). The latter could be regarded as a long term
tendency 
to have an emotion regarding a certain object rather than an emotion proper (though this is disputed). Adistinction is then made between emotion episodes and emotional dispositions. Dispositions are also comparable to character traits, where someone may be said to be generally disposed to experience certain emotions, though about different objects. Foexample an irritable person is generally disposed to feelirritationmore easily or quickly than others do. Finally, some theorists(for example,Klaus Scherer , 2005) place emotions within a more general category of 'affective states' where affective statescan also include emotion-related phenomena such as pleasure and pain, motivational states (for example,hunger or curiosity), moods, dispositions and traits.
[
citation needed 
]
 The neural correlates of hate have been investigated with an fMRI procedure. In this experiment, people had their brainsscanned while viewing pictures of people they hated. The results showed increased activity in the medial frontal gyrus, rightputamen, bilaterally in the premotor cortex, in the frontal pole, and bilaterally in the medial insula of the human brain. The
 
researchers concluded that there is a distinct pattern of brain activity that occurs when people are experiencing hatred.
[
citationneeded 
]
 
Em
otions
[
original 
 
research?
]
 
Affection Anger  
 
Annoyance 
 
Angst 
 
Apathy 
 
Anxiety 
 
Awe Contempt 
 
Curiosity 
 
Depression 
 
Desire Despair  
 
Disappointment 
 
Disgust 
 
Ecstasy Empathy 
 
Envy 
 
Embarrassment Euphoria 
 
Fear  Frustration Gratitude Grief  Guilt Happiness 
 
Hatred Hope 
 
Horror  Hostility 
 
Hysteria 
 
Interest Jealousy 
 
Loathing 

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