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Paper Rotor Dynamics

Paper Rotor Dynamics

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Published by Tony He

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Published by: Tony He on Jun 17, 2011
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Joachim SchmiedDELTA JS, SwitzerlandMarco PerucchiDELTA JS, SwitzerlandJean-Claude PradettoDELTA JS, SwitzerlandABSTRACT
The special requirements of rotordynamics engineering areillustrated by means of different examples of turbomachines.The differences between the properties of magnetic bearingsand the more common fluid film bearings are pointed out in theexamples of two turbocompressors. The importance of thebearing support properties are shown for a turbine generatortrain. The impact of seal forces are demonstrated for theturbocompressor supported on fluid film bearings. Two of theconsidered seals are honeycomb seals with frequency dependentcharacteristics. The consequences of the coupling of lateral andtorsional vibrations in gears are illustrated for a gearcompressor with three pinions. All examples have a practicalbackground from troubleshooting and engineering work although they do not exactly correspond to real cases
Rotors are structures with special properties due to theirrotation (causing e.g. the gyroscopic effect), due to theirbearings (fluid film bearings, magnetic bearings) and in manycases due to surrounding fluids (seal forces). Thereforerotordynamics requires special engineering tools although thestructural properties of the rotors and their supports could wellbe modeled by any general finite element program.Tools for rotordynamics and bearings have been developedfor many years. Pioneers in this area are Lund [1], Nordmann[2], Nelson [3],[5] and Gasch [4]. Nordmann, Nelson andGasch introduced the finite element method to rotordynamics.Lund developed the basics for fluid film bearings, which werefurther refined by many researchers such as for exampleGlienicke [6].The recent development of magnetic bearings, which arenow more and more introduced in industrial applications of turbomachines, required an extension of existing rotordynamictools to model the specific characteristics of this bearing typeand the controllers (see [7]).The differences in the rotordynamic behavior of rotorssupported on classic tilting pad fluid film bearings and magneticbearings are illustrated in two turbocompressor examples.The impact of the bearing support behavior is shown forthe example of a turbine generator train supported on fluid filmbearings.The interaction of fluid forces and seals has been the topicof research for many years, which is still going on. Well knownresearchers in this area are Nordmann [8] and Childs [9]. A fewyears ago fluid forces were mainly modeled as stiffness anddamping coefficients. Recently it is more and more recognizedthanks to more sophisticated analysis tools and measurements,that this approach is too restrictive. Honeycomb seals forexample can have more complex frequency dependentcharacteristics (see [10],[11]). Still, the rotordynamic tools forthe consideration of fluid forces are not as established as forfluid film bearings and strongly simplified engineeringapproaches are frequently used, for example the proceduredescribed in API [12] as stability level I analysis. In this paperan approach which could be used as stability level II analysis, isdescribed for a high pressure turbocompressor.In train arrangements with gears the lateral and torsionalvibrations are coupled. The influence of this coupling, which isnormally not taken into account in standard analyses, is shownfor a gear compressor.All analyses in this paper were carried out with the generalrotordynamic program MADYN 2000 [13]. Its mathematics of the structural modeling part is based on the proven finiteelement program MADYN [14]. The fluid film bearing modulein MADYN 2000 goes back to the program ALP3T [15], whichis the result of more than 20 years of research of the Germanresearch consortium FVV. The magnetic bearing moduleoriginates from the program MEDYN [7],[16], whosedevelopment started with the industrial application of magneticbearings.
B Width of bearingsd Damping coefficient of bearings or sealsD Diameter of bearingsDamping ratiof Frequencyk Stiffness coefficient of bearings or sealsm Pad preload of fluid film bearings
Four rotor arrangements are considered in this paper, whichare described in the following chapters.The rotor structures are modeled with finite elementsaccording to the Timoshenko beam theory considering the sheardeformation and gyroscopic effects [2],[3],[4],[5]. Each crosssection can consist of superimposed cross sections withdifferent mass and stiffness diameter as well as differentmaterial properties. The contours shown in the rotor plotrepresent the resulting mass diameter with the density of thebasis cross section, which is normally steel.Stiff shrunk parts on the rotor, e.g. impellers, can bemodeled as rigid parts. They are represented by mass,equatorial and polar moments of inertia. In the rotor plots theyare drawn as equivalent disks. In case only the mass is givenand no moments of inertias they are drawn as spheres. Normallythe fixation of these parts is rigid. If necessary they can also beflexibly mounted.Several analytical results of the examples will be shown:Damped natural vibration modes at different speeds and theresponse to unbalance loads. The damping of natural modes willbe described as damping ratio. This proved useful, since it caneasily be transformed to the amplification factor in theresonance of an unbalance response. The stability can also beassessed by the damping ratio; an unstable rotor has a negativedamping ratio.
1. Turbocompressor supported on fluid film bearingswith seals
The model of the turbocompressor with its main data isshown in figure 1.Max. speed
12’000 rpm,
total rotor weight 220 kg
Figure 1. Compressor rotor on fluid film bearings
The geometry of the 5 tilting pad bearings is illustrated infigure 2. The bearing has a load on pad arrangement and all padsupports have an offset.
Figure 2. Radial fluid film bearing geometry
This model will also be used to demonstrate the impact of seal fluid forces. The location of the two considered labyrinthseals and honeycomb seals with the highest gas density areshown in figure 3.
Figure 3. Seal locations on the compressor rotor2. Turbocompressor supported on magnetic bearings
The model of the turbocompressor with its main data isshown in figure 4. The bearings are represented by their sensorand actuator. The triangle in the plot indicates the actuatorlocation, the bar the sensor location.Max. speed
12’600 rpm, total rotor weight 550 kg
Figure 4. Compressor rotor on magnetic bearings3. Turbine generator train
The model of the turbine generator train is shown in figure5. Turbine and generator are supported on fixed pad fluid filmbearings. All bearing supports are flexible with a dynamiccharacteristic. Each support has a resonance in horizontal andvertical direction in the range of three times operating speed.Since there is only one relevant resonance and the couplingLabyrinths Honeycombs
3between the supports is negligible the supports are modeled astwo separate one mass systems for the horizontal and verticaldirection. In the more general case of several resonances andnot negligible couplings between the supports transfer functionsdescribing the displacement force relation could be used.Nominal speed
3’000 rpm
Figure 5. Turbine generator shaft train
In a shaft train consisting of two rotors with two bearingseach and coupled with a solid coupling the static bearing loadand thus the bearing characteristics depend on the alignment,which may change due to thermal growths of supports andcasings. In the present case this influence was relative small dueto the high weight of the rotors and the flexibility of the solidcoupling.
4. Gear compressor
The model of the gear compressor consisting of a bull gearand three pinions is shown in figure 6. All rotors are supportedon fluid film bearings, the pinions on tilting pad bearings andthe bull gear on cylindrical bearings.
Figure 6. Gear compressor
The meshing is modeled as explained in figure 7. Thespring is aligned with the tooth contact force.
Figure 7. Modeling of the gear meshROTORDYNAMIC BEHAVIOUR WITH FLUID FILMBEARINGS AND MAGNETIC BEARINGSRotor on fluid film bearings
The stiffness and damping coefficients of the fluid filmbearings in the 2-3 coordinate system of figure 2 are shown infigure 8. The coefficients of the two bearings are almost thesame. For this reason only one plot is shown. The coefficientsare speed and load dependent. The load in the present case isthe rotor weight.
Figure 8. Stiffness and damping coefficients of thefluid film bearing (left bearing in figure 1)
The rotor speed dependent natural frequencies anddamping ratios are shown in the Campbell diagram of figure 9.

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