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Table Of Contents

1 Introduction
1.1 Programm outline
1.2 Instructor
2 Classification of heat exchangers
2.1 Classification by construction
2.1.1 Tubular heat exchanger
2.2 Double pipe heat exchanger
Double Pipe Heat Exchanger
2.3 Spiral tube heat exchanger
2.4 Shell and tube heat exchanger
2.4.1 Fixed tubesheet
2.4.2 U-tube
2.4.3 Floating head
2.5 Plate heat exchangers
2.5.1 Gasketed plate heat exchanger
2.5.2 Welded- and Brazed-Plate exchanger (W. PHE and BHE)
2.5.3 Spiral Plate Exchanger (SPHE)
2.6 Extended surface
2.6.1 Plate fin
2.6.2 Tube fin
3 Code and standards
3.1 TEMA Designations
3.2 Classification by construction STHE
• Fixed tube sheet
3.2.1 Fixed tube sheet
3.2.2 U-Tube Heat Exchanger
3.2.3 Floating Head Designs
3.3 Shell Constructions
3.4 Tube side construction
3.4.1 Tube-Side Header:
3.4.2 Tube-Side Passes
3.4.3 Tubes Type
3.4.4 Tube arrangement
3.4.5 Tube side passes
3.5 Shell side construction
3.5.1 Shell Sizes
3.5.2 Shell-Side Arrangements
3.6 Baffles and tube bundles
3.6.1 The tube bundle
3.6.2 Baffle
3.6.3 Vapor Distribution
3.6.4 Tube-Bundle Bypassing
3.6.5 Tie Rods and Spacers
3.6.6 Tubesheets
4 Basic Design Equations of Heat Exchangers
4.1 LMTD-Method
4.1.2 Correction Factor
4.1.3 Overall heat transfer coefficient
4.1.4 Heat transfer coefficient
4.1.5 Fouling factor (hid,hod)
4.2 ε- NTU
4.3 Link between LMTD and NTU
4.4 The Theta Method
5 Thermal Design
5.1 Design Consideration
5.1.1 Fluid Stream Allocations
5.1.2 Shell and tube velocity
5.1.3 Stream temperature
5.1.4 Pressure drop
5.1.5 Fluid physical properties
5.2 Design data
5.3 Tubeside design
5.3.1 Heat-transfer coefficient
5.3.2 Pressure drop
5.4 Shell side design
5.4.1 Shell configuration
5.4.4 Baffling
5.4.5 Equalize cross-flow and window velocities
5.4.6 Shellside stream analysis (Flow pattern)
5.4.7 Heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop
5.4.8 Heat transfer coefficient
5.4.9 Pressure drop
5.5 Design Algorithm
6 Specification sheet
6.1 Information included
6.2 Information not included
6.3 Operation conditions
6.4 Bid evaluation
6.4.1 Factor to be consider
7 Storage, Installation, Operation and Maintenance
7.1 Storage
7.2 Installation
7.2.1 Installation Planning
7.2.2 Installation at Jobsite
7.3 Operation
8 Heat exchanger tube side mainenance (Repair vs
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Repair vs. Replace - Factors To Consider
8.3 Heat Exchanger maintenance Options
8.4 Repair option
8.4.1 Plug
8.4.2 Sleeving
8.4.3 Tube Expansion
8.5 Replacement option
8.5.1 Retubing
8.5.2 Rebundling
8.5.3 Complete replacement (New unit)
8.6 Conclusions
9 Troubleshooting
9.1 Heat exchangers’ problems
1. Fouling
9.2 Fouling
9.2.1 Costs of fouling
9.2.2 Facts about fouling
9.2.3 Types of Fouling
9.2.4 Fouling Mechanisms
9.2.5 Conditions Influencing Fouling
9.2.6 Fouling control
9.2.7 Fouling cleaning methods
9.3 Leakage/Rupture of the Heat Transfer Surface
9.3.1 Cost of leakage
9.3.2 Cause of differential thermal expansion
9.4 Corrosion
9.4.1 Corrosion effects
9.4.2 Causes of corrosion
9.4.3 Type of corrosion
• stress corrosion
• galvanic corrosion
9.4.4 Stress corrosion
9.4.5 Galvanic corrosion
9.4.6 Pitting
9.4.7 Uniform or rust corrosion
9.4.8 Crevice corrosion
9.4.9 Materials of Construction
9.4.10 Fabrication
9.5 Troubleshooting
9.6 Past failure incidents
9.6.1 Ethylene Oxide Redistillation Column Explosion:
9.6.2 Brittle Fracture of a Heat Exchanger
9.6.3 Cold Box Explosion
9.7 Failure scenarios and design solutions
9.8 Discussion
9.8.1 Use of Potential Design Solutions Table
9.8.2 Special Considerations
9.9 Troubleshooting Examples
9.9.1 Shell side temperature uncontrolled
9.9.2 Shell assumed banana-shape
9.9.3 Steam condenser performing below design capacity
9.9.4 Steam heat exchanger flooded
10 Unresolved problems in the heat exchangers de-
10.1 Future trend
Bibliography
A Heat transfer coefficient
A.1 Single phase
A.1.1 Inside tube: Turbulent flow
A.1.2 Inside tube: Laminar flow
A.1.3 Shell side
A.1.4 Plate heat exchanger
A.2 Condensation
A.2.1 Condensation on vertical plate or outside vertical tube
A.2.2 Condensation on external horizontal tube
A.2.3 Condensation on banks of horizontal tube
A.2.4 Condensation inside horizontal tube
A.3 Two phase flow: Pure fluid
A.3.1 Steiner [140] correlation
A.3.2 Kattan et al. [77] correlation
A.3.3 Kandlikar [70] correlation
A.3.4 Chen [19] correlation
A.3.5 Gungor and Winterton [52] correlation
A.3.6 Shah [130] correlation
A.3.7 Schrock and Grossman [129] correlation
A.3.8 Dembi et al. [30] correlation
A.3.9 Klimenko [84] correlation
A.3.10 Jung et al. [64] correlation
A.4 Two phase flow: Mixture
A.4.1 Steiner [140] correlation
A.4.2 Kandlikar [71] correlation
A.4.3 Bennett and Chen [8] correlation
A.4.4 Palen [111] correlation
A.4.5 Jung et al. [64] correlation
B Pressure drop
B.1 Single phase
B.2 Two phase
B.2.1 Friedel [42] model
B.2.2 Lockhart and Martinelli [91] model
B.2.3 Chisholm [22] model
C Physical properties
C.1 Physical properties: Pure fluid
C.1.1 Specific heat
C.1.2 Vapor pressure
C.1.3 Liquid viscosity
C.1.4 Vapor dynamic viscosity VDI-W¨armeatlas [157]
C.1.5 Dynamic viscosity of Fenghour et al. [40]
C.1.6 Surface tension
C.1.7 Thermal conductivity for liquids
C.1.8 Thermal conductivity for gases
C.1.9 Specific enthalpy
C.2 Physical properties: Mixture
C.2.1 Liquid dynamic viscosity of mixtures
C.2.2 Vapor dynamic viscosity of mixtures
C.2.3 Liquid thermal conductivity of mixtures
C.2.4 Vapor thermal conductivity of mixtures
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Heat Exchanger

Heat Exchanger

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Published by Sajilal Joseph

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Published by: Sajilal Joseph on Jun 17, 2011
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