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Hipotiroidismo - Hypothyroidism

Hipotiroidismo - Hypothyroidism

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Published by Eder Lemus
Hypothyroidism - Review, se presenta epidemiologia, clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento. Tambien icluye manejo del coma mixedematoso
Hypothyroidism - Review, se presenta epidemiologia, clinica, diagnostico y tratamiento. Tambien icluye manejo del coma mixedematoso

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Published by: Eder Lemus on Jun 17, 2011
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11/24/2012

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Hypothyroidism
Madhuri Devdhar, MD, Yasser H. Ousman, MD*,Kenneth D. Burman, MD
Washington Hospital Center, 110 Irving Street,NW, Room 2A-72, Washington, DC 20010-2975 USA
Hypothyroidism is one of the most common disorders encountered inan endocrine office practice. Hypothyroidism results from reduced thyroidhormone actions at the peripheral tissues. This reduction in thyroidhormone action is, in the vast majority of cases, secondary to reduced thy-roid hormone synthesis and secretion by the thyroid gland. Occasionally,peripheral resistance to thyroid hormone is the culprit. The availability of sensitive biochemical tests and effective therapies has simplified the diagno-sis and management of this endocrine condition. This article reviews theepidemiology, etiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of hypothyroidism. We emphasize some of the more recent issues, such as com-bination thyroid hormone therapy, management of hypothyroidism duringpregnancy, and the management of subclinical hypothyroidism.
Epidemiology
Hypothyroidism is a relatively common disorder. The prevalence of hypothyroidism increases with age, and the disorder is nearly 10 timesmore common in females than in males. Hypothyroidism is particularlycommon in areas of iodine deficiency. Individuals who have thyroid perox-idase antibodies and those who have thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)values that are in the upper normal range are at increased risk for develop-ing hypothyroidism.The prevalence of overt hypothyroidism varies according to differentsurveysbetween0.1and2%[1].Subclinicalhypothyroidismismoreprevalentand can be seen in as many as 15% of older women. In the United StatesNational Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), the
* Corresponding author.
E-mail address:
yasser.ousman@medstar.net(Y.H. Ousman).0889-8529/07/$ - see front matter
Ó
2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.doi:10.1016/j.ecl.2007.04.008
endo.theclinics.com
Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am36 (2007) 595–615
Uploaded Byhttp://scribd.com/coolederTwitter: @DrLemusCEDERLC@YAHOO.COM
 
prevalence of overt hypothyroidism was found to be 0.3%;prevalence of sub-clinical hypothyroidism was found to be 4.3%[2].
Etiology
A summary of the most common causes of hypothyroidism is given inBox 1.
Resistance to thyroid hormones
Hypothyroidism may be transient or permanent, central, or primary.Central hypothyroidism can accompany disorders of the hypothalamic-pitu-itary axis, leading to reduced TSH secretion or reduced biological activity of TSH. As a result, there is reduction in thyroid stimulation by the TSH and,secondarily, reduced thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion.Primary hypothyroidism refers to a defect in the thyroid gland resultingin reduced synthesis and secretion of thyroid hormones.
Central hypothyroidism
Central hypothyroidism is classically divided into secondary hypothy-roidism, where the defect is in the pituitary gland, and tertiary hypothyroid-ism, where the defect is in the hypothalamus. From a practical point of view,
Box 1. Causes of hypothyroidism
Central hypothyroidism 
Pituitary tumors, metastasis, hemorrhage, necrosis, aneurysmsSurgery, traumaInfiltrative disordersInfectious diseasesChronic lymphocytic hypophysitisOther brain tumorsCongenital abnormalities, defects in thyrotropin releasinghormone, TSH, or both
Primary hypothyroidism 
Chronic autoimmune thyroiditisSubacute, silent, postpartum thyroiditisIodine deficiency, iodine excessThyroid surgery, I-131 treatment, external irradiationInfiltrative disordersDrugsAgenesis and dysgenesis of the thyroid
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et al
 
the end result is the same: a reduction in the release of biologically activeTSH. A variety of disorders can cause central hypothyroidism. In clinicalpractice,pituitaryadenomasarethemostcommon.Lessprevalentconditionsinclude pituitary apoplexy and infiltrative disorders of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, such as sarcoidosis, tuberculosis, and other granulomatousdiseases. Depending on the extent of the damage incurred by the hypothala-mus-pituitary axis, central hypothyroidism may be reversible or permanent.Although isolated deficiency of thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) orTSH is possible[3–5], more often the patient who has central hypothyroidismpresents with deficiency of other pituitary hormones, and central hypothy-roidism is only part of the larger clinical picture of hypopituitarism.
Primary hypothyroidism
Primary hypothyroidism is responsible for the majority of hypothyroidcases. The following discussion reviews the most common entities that resultin primary hypothyroidism.Chronic autoimmune (Hashimoto’s) thyroiditis is the leading cause of primary hypothyroidism in iodine-sufficient areas. Clinically, patients whohave Hashimoto’s thyroiditis may present with or without goiter. Pathophy-siologically, there is cell-mediated and antibody-mediated destruction of thethyroid gland[6]. Most patients have measurable autoantibodies against dif-ferent components of the thyroid gland (thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin,TSH receptor, TSH blocking antibodies)[7–9]. Occasionally, a patient maypresent with thyrotoxicosis due to the presence of thyroid-stimulating auto-antibodies (Hashitoxicosis)[10].The prevalence is several times higher in women than in men. The prev-alence of overt hypothyroidism varies from less than 1% to 2% of the pop-ulation. Up to 15% of elderly women have thyroid autoantibodies[11].Euthyroid individuals, who have detectable thyroid autoantibodies, are atincreased risk for developing overt hypothyroidism.Hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis may be part of a poly-glandular failure syndrome that may include autoimmune adrenal insuffi-ciency, type 1 diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism, pernicious anemia, andvitiligo.
Iodine
Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism[12].Patients often have large goiters. Transient hypothyroidism may also resultfrom iodine excess. This is referred to as the Wolff-Chaikoff effect. Most pa-tients eventually escape this effect. Large amounts of iodine are found inradiographic contrast agents and in the drug amiodarone.Thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine therapy of patients who haveGraves disease, toxic thyroid nodules, or toxic multinodular goiters arecommon causes of hypothyroidism[13,14].
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HYPOTHYROIDISM

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