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Table Of Contents

1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
2 INTRODUCTION
3 BACKGROUND
3.1 Australian Fuel Quality Standards
Table 3.1 – Australian National Fuel Standards for Automotive Diesel [3]
3.2 Effect of Fuels on Emissions
Figure 3.1 – Effect of Biodiesel on Heavy Duty Engine Emissions
Figure 3.4 – Influence of Fuel properties on Heavy-Duty Diesel Emissions [9]
3.3 Effect of Regulations and Engine Technology on Emissions
Table 3.2 – Summary of Emission ADR History for Diesel Vehicles
Figure 3.5 – Overview of Emission ADRs for Diesel Vehicles
Figure 3.6 – Overview of Heavy Duty Vehicle European (Euro) Regulation Limits
Table 3.3 – ADR Test Requirements for On-Road Heavy Duty Diesel Engines
3.4 Effect of Engine Load on Emissions
4 EXPERIMENTAL METHOD
4.1 Overview
Figure 4.1 – Engine Test Sequence
4.2 Engine Selection
Table 4.1 – Test Engine Specifications
4.2.1 On-Road Heavy Duty Truck Fleet
Figure 4.4 – Heavy Duty Vehicle Manufacturer Distribution within AT Category
Figure 4.5 – Estimated Engine Manufacturer Distribution within AT Category
4.2.2 Selected Vehicle Specifications
Table 4.3 – Kenworth Articulated Truck Specifications
4.3 Test Fuels and Management
Table 4.4 – Project Fuels Properties
4.4 Heavy Duty Engine Testing
4.4.1 Test Cycles Used
Figure 4.6 – ESC Engine Test Cycle (Euro 3, 4, 5)
Figure 4.7 – ETC Engine Test Cycle
4.4.2 Engine Dynamometer(s)
Figure 4.8 – Heavy Duty Engine Facility
4.4.3 Emissions Sampling
Figure 4.10 – Partial Flow (Micro) compared to a Full Dilution Tunnel [16]
4.5 Development of Alternate Loading Engine Test Cycles
4.5.1 Origin of the European Transient Cycle (ETC)
Figure 4.11 – FIGE Vehicle Test Cycle (resultant ETC is shown in Figure 4.7)
Table 4.5 – Selected Parameters for the FIGE Cycle
4.5.2 Vehicle Road Load Estimation
Figure 4.12 – Road Load Estimations
4.5.3 Drive Cycle Simulation Results
Figure 4.13 – 70t Vehicle Drive Cycles as Simulated
Figure 4.14 – 97t Vehicle Drive Cycles as Simulated
4.5.3.1 Transient Test Engine Cycles
Figure 4.15 – 70t Transient Engine Test Combined Cycle
Figure 4.16 – 97t Transient Engine Test Combined Cycle
4.5.3.2 Steady State (Modal) Cycles
Table 4.6 – 70t and 97t Steady State Tests
Figure 4.17 – Low and High Load Steady State Tests
5 FUEL COMPOSITION TEST RESULTS
5.1 Presentation and Interpretation of Results
5.2 ADR80/00 Engine Results
Figure 5.1 – ADR80/00 ESC Results
Figure 5.2 – ADR80/00 ETC Results
Figure 5.3 – ADR80/00 Full-Load Torque Curves
5.3 ADR80/02 Engine Results
Figure 5.4 – ADR80/02 ESC Results
Figure 5.5 – ADR80/02 ETC Results
Figure 5.6 – ADR80/02 Full-Load Torque Curves
5.4 ADR80/03 Engine
Figure 5.7 – ADR80/03 ESC Results
Figure 5.8 – ADR80/03 ETC Results
Figure 5.9 – ADR80/03 Full-Load Torque Curves
5.5 Summary of Fuel Composition Results
5.5.1 Comparison of Low and High Cetane Diesel
Figure 5.10 – NOx Results: Low vs High Cetane
Figure 5.12 – CO2 Results: Low vs High Cetane
5.5.2 Comparison of Biodiesel Results
Figure 5.13 – NOx Results: Biodiesel vs Diesel
Figure 5.15 – CO2 Results: Biodiesel vs Diesel
5.5.3 Low Density Fuel Results
Figure 5.16 – NOx Results: Low Density vs Regular Diesel
Figure 5.18 – CO2 Results: Low Density vs Regular Diesel
5.6 Discussion: Fuel Composition Effects on Heavy Duty Engine Emissions
6 LOAD EFFECTS: TEST RESULTS
6.1 Presentation and Interpretation of Results
6.2 ADR80/00 Engine
Figure 6.5 – Load Effects: ADR80/02 Steady State Cycle Results
Figure 6.6 – Load Effects: ADR80/02 Change in Steady State Cycle Emissions
Figure 6.7 – Load Effects: ADR80/02 Transient Cycle Results
Figure 6.12 – Load Effects: ADR80/03 Change in Transient Cycle Emissions
6.5 Summary of Load Effect Results
Figure 6.13 – Load Effects: Relative Change in Steady State Cycle Results
Figure 6.14 – Load Effects: Relative Change in Transient Cycle Emissions
Figure 6.15 – Load Effects: Relative Change in Emissions during Urban Phase
Figure 6.16 – Load Effects: Relative Change in Emissions during Rural Phase
Figure 6.17 – Load Effects: Relative Change in Emissions during Motorway Phase
6.6 Discussion: Load Effects on Heavy Duty Engine Emissions
7 CONCLUSIONS
Table 7.1 – Summary of Fuel Effects on Heavy Diesel Engine Emissions
8 REFERENCES
Appendix 1. Fuel Analysis Datasheets
Low Cetane Diesel
High Cetane Diesel
B5 Diesel
B20 Diesel
R50 Diesel
B100 Diesel – used only to prepare B5 and B20
Appendix 2. Prime Mover Specifications (extract only)
Prime-mover to suit 70tonne Service
Prime-mover to suit 100tonne Service
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CSIRO, Effects of Fuel Composition and Engine Load on Emissions From Heavy Duty Engines

CSIRO, Effects of Fuel Composition and Engine Load on Emissions From Heavy Duty Engines

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Published by: javierfajardo on Jun 18, 2011
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