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Whale Watching. 2001

Whale Watching. 2001

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Published by PROBIOMA
Whale watching as a commercial endeavor — with important educational, environmental, scientific, and other
socioeconomic benefits — is now at least a $1 billion USD industry attracting more than 9 million participants a
year in 87 countries and territories.
Since the last worldwide survey in 1994, whale watching has continued to grow at a rapid rate. In 1991, only 31
countries and overseas territories were involved in whale watching; today there are 87. At the same time, the
number of whale watchers has increased from a little more than 4 million for the year 1991, and 5.4 million for
the year 1994, to 9 million in 1998. Total whale watching tourism expenditures, estimated at $504 million USD
(£311 million GBP) in 1994, grew to $1,049 million USD (£655 million GBP) in 1998.
As a further measure of its prevalence, whale watching is now carried on in some 492 communities around the
world- nearly 200 more than in 1994. In many places, whale watching provides valuable, sometimes crucial
income to a community, with the creation of new jobs and businesses. It helps foster an appreciation of the
importance of marine conservation, and provides a ready platform for researchers wanting to study cetaceans or
the marine environment. Whale watching offers communities a sense of identity and considerable pride. In a
number of places, it does all of the above, literally transforming a community.
This report covers watching of all cetaceans, not just large whales. “Whale watching“ is thus defined as tours by
boat, air or from land, formal or informal, with at least some commercial aspect, to see, swim with, and/or listen
to any of the some 83 species of whales, dolphins and porpoises. As well as tours that are strictly whale- or
dolphin-oriented, I have also calculated the contribution from general nature tours and cruises which feature
whales and dolphins as a prominent aspect, such as Alaskan and Antarctic cruises and Galápagos boat tours.
However, in these cases, the numbers and expenditures included in this report have been reduced (to between
10% and 50% of the total) to reflect only the estimated value of the cetacean component of the trip.
Here is
Whale watching as a commercial endeavor — with important educational, environmental, scientific, and other
socioeconomic benefits — is now at least a $1 billion USD industry attracting more than 9 million participants a
year in 87 countries and territories.
Since the last worldwide survey in 1994, whale watching has continued to grow at a rapid rate. In 1991, only 31
countries and overseas territories were involved in whale watching; today there are 87. At the same time, the
number of whale watchers has increased from a little more than 4 million for the year 1991, and 5.4 million for
the year 1994, to 9 million in 1998. Total whale watching tourism expenditures, estimated at $504 million USD
(£311 million GBP) in 1994, grew to $1,049 million USD (£655 million GBP) in 1998.
As a further measure of its prevalence, whale watching is now carried on in some 492 communities around the
world- nearly 200 more than in 1994. In many places, whale watching provides valuable, sometimes crucial
income to a community, with the creation of new jobs and businesses. It helps foster an appreciation of the
importance of marine conservation, and provides a ready platform for researchers wanting to study cetaceans or
the marine environment. Whale watching offers communities a sense of identity and considerable pride. In a
number of places, it does all of the above, literally transforming a community.
This report covers watching of all cetaceans, not just large whales. “Whale watching“ is thus defined as tours by
boat, air or from land, formal or informal, with at least some commercial aspect, to see, swim with, and/or listen
to any of the some 83 species of whales, dolphins and porpoises. As well as tours that are strictly whale- or
dolphin-oriented, I have also calculated the contribution from general nature tours and cruises which feature
whales and dolphins as a prominent aspect, such as Alaskan and Antarctic cruises and Galápagos boat tours.
However, in these cases, the numbers and expenditures included in this report have been reduced (to between
10% and 50% of the total) to reflect only the estimated value of the cetacean component of the trip.
Here is

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Published by: PROBIOMA on Jun 19, 2011
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12/22/2011

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WHALE WATCHING 2001
WORLDWIDE TOURISMNUMBERS, EXPENDITURES,AND EXPANDINGSOCIOECONOMIC BENEFITS
by Erich HoytA special report from theInternational Fund for Animal Welfare
 
Whale Watching 2001:Worldwide tourism numbers,expenditures,and expanding socioeconomic benefitsErich HoytA special report from theInternational Fund for Animal Welfare
Citation:Hoyt,E.2001.Whale Watching 2001:Worldwide tourism numbers,expenditures,and expandingsocioeconomic benefits.International Fund for AnimalWelfare,Yarmouth Port,MA,USA,pp.i–vi;1–158.ISBN:1-901002-09-8© International Fund for Animal WelfareBased partly on previous research from the Whale andDolphin Conservation SocietyPlease address any comments,corrections or furtherinformation regarding the material in this report to:Erich Hoytemail:ehoyt@compuserve.comFax:+44 (0)1620 895 257This report has been endorsed by the United NationsEnvironment Programme (UNEP).International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW)International Headquarters411 Main StreetP.O.Box 193Yarmouth Port,MA 02675USA87-90 Albert EmbankmentLondon SE1 9UDUnited Kingdomwww.ifaw.org
The designations employed and the presentation of the materials in thisdocument do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the partof UNEP concerning the legal status of any State,Territory,city or area,or itsauthorities,or concerning the delimitation of their frontiers or boundaries.Thedocument contains the views expressed by the authors acting in theirindividual capacity and may not necessarily reflect the views of UNEP.
 
Contents
Preface1Authors note and acknowledgments2Executive summary3Introduction7
Box 1. Rate of Return in Whale Watch Communities
8Methodology10
Box 2. Explanations and Notes on Categories and Data Presented
10Results12WORLD12
Box 3. Estimated Growth of Whale Watching Worldwide
13NORTH AMERICA14
United States of America (50 states)
14
New England
15
Eastern US and Gulf of Mexico
17
California
18
Northwest: Oregon and Washington
20
Alaska
21
Hawaii
23
Canada
24
Newfoundland
26
Maritimes: New Brunswick and Nova Scotia
26
Québec
27
Manitoba and The Arctic
28
British Columbia
28
St. Pierre and Miquelon (France)
30
México
31CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE WEST INDIES34
Belize
34
Honduras
35
Costa Rica
36
Panamá
37
Bermuda (UK)
38
Bahamas
39
Turks and Caicos Islands (UK)
40
Dominican Republic
41
Puerto Rico (US)
43
US Virgin Islands (US)
44
British Virgin Islands (UK)
45
Bonaire (Netherlands)
46
St. Kitts and Nevis
47
Guadeloupe and islands (including St. Martin and St. Barthélemy) (France)
48
Dominica
49
Martinique (France)
50
St. Lucia
51
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
52
Grenada
53

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