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Chapter 2 Gravity Method

Chapter 2 Gravity Method

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Published by Shahbaz Gul
gravity surveying
gravity surveying

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Published by: Shahbaz Gul on Jun 19, 2011
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04/02/2013

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Chapter
2
Gravitysurveying
2.1
Introduction
Sincethediscoveryofthelawofgravitation(IsaacNewton,1685),themutualattrac-tionbetweenallmasseshasbeenrecognizedasauniversalphenomenon.Thephe-nomenonaccountsforthefamiliarfactthatabodywhenreleasedneartheearthwillfallwithincreasingvelocity.Therateofincreaseofvelocityiscalledthegravita-tionalacceleration,orsimplygravity,g,whichwouldhaveasingleconstantvalueontheearth'ssurfaceiftheearthwereaperfectsphereofuniformconcentricshellstructure.Infact,ourearthisnon-uniform,non-spherical.androtating,andallthesefactscontributetovariationsingravityoveritssurface.Themeasurementsandanalysesofthevariationingravityovertheearth'ssurfacehavebecomepowerfultechniquesintheinvestigationofsubsurfacestruc-turesatvariousdepths.Ofprimeinterestinenvironmentalandengineeringstudiesarethevariationsingravitywhichreflectlateraldensitycontrastsassociatedwithtargetsatshallowdepths.Inmanycasesthedensitycontrastsoccuratboundariesbetweendifferentgeologicalformations,althoughman-madeboundariessuchastunnelsandminesalsorepresentcontrasts.Gravityvariationscaused
by
densityinhomogeneitiesarerelativelysmall(often
<10-
6
oftheearth'sgravity),andtheiraccuratemeasurementispossibleonlywiththeaidofextremelysensitiveinstru-ments.Asageophysicaltechnique,thegravity-surveyingmethodhasagreatdealincommonwiththemagneticmethod.Bothgravityandmagneticfieldsarepotentialfields,andbothrequirefundamentallysimilarinterpretationtechniques.Theuse-fulnessandapplicationsofthetwomethods,however,varyconsiderablydependingontherelativeprominenceofthephysicalproperty(densityormagnetization)con-trastinvolvedinvariousgeologicalsituations.Inthischapterweshallfirststudythecharacteristicsofpotentialfieldswhicharebasictoaproperunderstandingofthegravitymeasurementsandtheirinterpreta-tionintermsofsubsurfacedensi
ty
distribu
tion,
Thiswillbefollowedbymethodsof
11
 
12
Gravitysurveying
dataacquisition,analysis,andinterpretationwithspecialemphasisontheresolu-tionofshallowtargets.Severalexamplesofenvironmentalandengineeringstudiesareincludedtoillustratetheuseofgravitysurveys.
2.2
Characteristicsofpotentialfields
2.2.1
Gravitationalforce,potential,andfield
Theforceofattraction,F,betweentwopointmassesmand
m',
separatedbyadis-tance,
r,
isgiven
by
Newton'slaw:
(2.1)
wherer
1
isaunitvectordirectedfrom
m
towardsm'(whenFisactingon
m),
andGisthegravitationalconstantwhichhasameasuredvalueof
6.672
x
10-
11
Nm
lfkg2
inS1units
(6.672X10-
g
dynescm
2
/g
2
inthe
c.g.s
systemofunits).TheSlunitofforceisthenewton(1N
=
10'dynes).Theforceexertedonabodyattheearth'ssurfaceisduetotheattractionoftheearth.Whentheeffectsofrotationandnon-uniformityoftheshapeanddensityoftheearthareneglected(asifitwereasphereofuniformconcentricshellstruc-ture),theforceexerted
by
theearthonabodyofmass
m
canbeobtainedfrom
Eq.(2.1)
as
(2.2)
where
ME
istheearth'smass,
Rs
istheearth'sradius,andr
t
isaunitvectordirectedfrom
m
towardstheearth'scenter.ThegravitationalforceisalsogivenbyNewton'ssecondlawofmotion,i.e.,F=mg,wheregistheaccelerationthatwouldbecausedbythegravitationalpulloftheearthifthebodywereallowedtofallfreely.Thus,thegravitationalacceleration
g
(henceforthreferredtoonlyasgravity)may
be
consideredastheforceexerted
by
theearthonaunitmass,anditcanbeexpressedas
(2.3)
wherer
t
isaunitvectordirectedtowardsthecenteroftheearth.TheS1unitforgravity,
g,
ism/s2.Inthec.g.s,systemtheunitfor
g
iscm/s
2;
ingeophysicsthisunitisreferredtoastheGal(inhonourofGalileo).One-tenthofamilligaliscalledagravityunit(g.u.),whichisusedmorecommonlyinexplorationwork.Thepracticalunit
g.u.
isthesameasthesubunit!Lm/s2ofgravityaccelerationinS1.Thus,
1
f-Lm/s2
=1
g.u.=O.lmGal.Thegravitationalpotential,
U,
duetoapointmassmatagivenpointP,atadistancerfromm,isdefinedastheWorkdone
by
thegravitationalforceinmovingaunitmassfromaninfinitedistancetothefinalpositionatP.Ingeodesyand
:;
 
Characteristicsofpotentialfields
13
p
Fig.2.1Gravitationalattractionganditsverticalcomponentg,atapointPduetoageneralizedmassM;itiscalculatedbyintegratingthegravityeffectofanelementdMovertheWholemass(seetext).
geophysics,thesignconventionistotakeUtobeapositivequantity;
its
magnitudeisgivenby
U""Cm/r
(2.4)
Thepotentialfunction,
LT,
playsanimportantpartinthetheoryofattraction;theneg-ativederivative
ofU
givesthegravityattractioninthecorrespondingdirection.Thus
au
Gm
g;:-_..
=-
r
ar
r2
Thegravityattractionduetoageneralizedmassdistribution(Fig.
2.1)
isthevee-
"(JfuJfi
torialsumofattractionsproducedbyallpointmasses,becausetheydonotgener-allyactinthesamedirection.Itis
the
verticalcomponentofgravityattraction,
g,
(henceforthwrittensimplyas
g),
thatisusuallyofinterest.Thisiscalculatedatapoint
P
by
theintegralequation
(2.5)
J
dM
JPCOScpdV
g=G
7
osljl=:G
,.2
M
v
wheredMisthemassofavolumeelementdVofdensity
p
atadistance
r
fromP.ConsideringthepointPlocatedat
0,/3,0
andthemasselementat
x,y,z,
we
canwritedM""pdxdydz.Inthiscoordinatesystem,Eq.(2.6)canbewrittenas
(2.6)
g=G
J
f
JPZd:?Y~
(2.7)
where
r={(x-a)2+(Y-J.3)2+Z~pI2.
Ifthemassdistributionistwo-dimensional(2-D},whichoccurswhenabodycom-posedofelements,eachofconstantcross-sectiondS,isstrikinginfinitelyinahori-zontaldirection(sayfrom
+00
to-
00
inthey-direction,perpendiculartotheplaneofFig.2.1),theaboveequationreduces
to
ff
pldXdZ
~2-D)""2G
-r-2-
(2.8)

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