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قواعد اللغة الانجليزية

قواعد اللغة الانجليزية

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Published by Tha'r Abu Qobaitah

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Published by: Tha'r Abu Qobaitah on Jun 19, 2011
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) ةيزلجنا ةغلا دعاوق Grammar وتشا مسح .ا (
Pronouns
 
ا  ي رضاa pronoun replaces a noun:تا وا ىلع هادختا  هكشأب رئضا فلتخ ،
Examples:
-
I
go to school everyday. - This is
my
book. - This book is
mine
. - Give
me
the book. - The boys hurt
themselves.
 ةةةةةةةة ةةةةةةة  Reflexive pronouns
myself – yourself – himself – herself – itself  – ( را )Singular  ourselves – yourselves – themselves – ( جا )Plural
 ةسكعنملا رئمضلا تادخا
1
( ا هضب ىلع اوي ) اذ ءا  ب وا  عا وكي دع -Ali cut
himself 
 2دأتل -My father 
himself 
cleaned the car 3مدختسن -Did you do your homework 
on your own
? ( on your own = by yourself = alone(4:  ا ب  ع ةسكا رئضا مدختس -approach – afford – bath – dress – shave – wash – meet – sit down – stand up – worry – decide – remember – concentrate← ــــثــ I shaved after I had got up 5ون  رجا رح  ةسكا رئضا مدختسن  - place position← ــــثــ She put her bag next to
her
(herself (6) ةسكا رئضا  لطص -Idioms with reflexive pronouns( ← ــــثـ enjoyed
ourselves
– behave
themselves
– help
yourself 
– make
yourself 
 7) رح دب ةسكا رئضا مدختس -for ← تا رتا  (Let the kid do it for 
himself 
 8) رح دب ةسكا رئضا مدختس - by← ةتا ارتا  (He lives
by himself 
= alone I answered these questions
by myself 
= no body helped me
Practice
 Fill in the gaps . 
1-
A: Welcome to the class.
2-
A: That is Hans. ……..is
3-
A: Where is Qatar ? B: ……am David and this is from Germany. B: ……is near Saudi Arabia. Maria. …… is from Italy. 
4-
A: And who are …..?
5-
A: Do you know Maria?
6-
A: Do you know the teacher ? B: …..are new students from Qatar. B: No, I don't know …... . B: No, I don't know. ……
Complete the sentences with a possessive adjective .
 
1-
'My sister's married.' What's …….. husband's name? 
2-
'My brother's office is in New York.' What's ……. Job? 
3-
'Mum and Dad are in Rome.' What's ..….. phone number ? 
Use reflexive pronouns to complete the sentences .
 
1-
Your hair looks terrible. Look at ……………… in the mirror . 
2-
Ahmed is getting very strange. He talks to ………………… all the time. 
3-
The question ………………. Is not very complicated, but the answer certainly is. 
4-
The old lady lives …………….. these days, and she rarely goes out to see anyone. 
5-
You don't need to explain what I did to everyone. I can speak .………………
Choose the correct answer  .
 
1-
To understand ancient Egypt, scholars study its hieroglyphics and try to interpret ( it – them – itself – themselves.(
2-
The dialect that is spoken in Olimbos is so old that many of ( its – his – hers – theirs ) words date back to the time of Homer . 
3-
As the bare mountains turned green, the people found ( they – them – their – themselves ) looking forward to spring. 
4-
 New chemicals are not always tested to determine if ( it – she – he – they ) will cause cancer or genetic mutations.
 
ىرأ رئم Other pronouns:
 ) ةةةةةةةةة ةةةةة Interrogatives
:  
Who? Which? Whose? What....?
← ـــــثـ 
Who
visits her? -
What
are you goingto buy?
 ) ةةةةة ةةةةة Relative pronouns
:  
who – whose – that – which
← ــــثـ Faisal is the man
whose
car is black 
 ) ةةةةةةة ةةةةةQuantitative
: ت و ر رئضا  لي Reflexive pronounsكنا رئ Possessive pronounsةكلا رئ Possessive adjectivesةكلا  Object pronounsب وا رئ Subject pronounsعا رئ myself yourself himself herself itself ourselvesyourselvesthemselvesmineyourshishersitsoursyourstheirsmyyour hisher itsour your their meyouhimher itusyouthemIyouhesheitweyouthey(  / ن / ) رثmost of ...… دح none of .… لق few of ( you(ك / ه all of .… ب some of ( us(  دحا  each ( one ) of .…  either of .… لق a few of ( it(   both of .… any of ( them(
 
 ) ةةةة ةةةةة Indefinite pronouns
:  nowheresomewheresomethingsomebody / one nothinganywhereanythingeverybody / one nobody / oneeverywhereeverythinganybody / one ) ةل نح رئضا  تي -else← ث (Do you need
anything
else? – 
Somebody
else called you ← ث ةكلا ةغ  رئضا  مادختا كي -
somebody's
explanation -
someone's
suggestion – 
everyone's
clothes 
 ) ةةةةةةة ةةةةة Demonstrative pronouns
ءؤ :  
these
 -
those
ل / اذ -
that
 / ا -
this
 ـــــــــ 
  ) ةةةةةة Adjectiveةةةة .ة ةةةةةة
 
Syllables
ـب ىسي ةغلا   وو ع دتن  ون ةيادب syllables ه ، ا هضب ع فلتخ ةيزلجنا ةغلا ل  دجن ح ( ا ).ةلثا ب إ ، اك  ة   ا   دحا ط اذ 
Six syllablesFive syllablesFour syllablesThree syllablesTwo syllablesOne syllable
ex-tra-cur-ric-u-lar ca-pa-bil-i-tyex-pe-di-tionsub-ma-rine be-longtree
Comparative & Superlative adjectives
.وا ن  را ءشا ع ع دتا ءا زت ا ىإ ض ةل هن ىلع ةصا رن ةيادب ةلث
Ali is tall. - John is a clever boy. - The lion is a dangerous animal.)دحا ط   ه ه  فلتخ صا short-nice-thin) ط   ، (lucky – happy) رث  ، ( beautiful – dangerous.( :تا دجا ىإ رظنا ،ىظع صا وك  ةا   ك ( رآب ءش ن دع  ) ةن صإ صا ون  طتسن 
مظSuperlativeةق Comparative
}tall the tallest - long the longest{
1-
فضن دحاوا طا   
est
هلق ضن 
the
. Ex. Adel is the tallest student in our class.
2-
ـب هت تا ةصا
y
ىإ ل 
i
. happy happiest - funny funniest
3-
ةصا ق ضن ركا صا  
the most
. exciting → the most exciting terrifying → the most terrifying Ex. The Piranha fish is the most terrifyingcreature.
4-
مدختس 
least
ا  رث ب ةنل .قا   ( ىظع )  beautiful → the least beautiful}taller than - long longer than
1-
هإ فضن دحاوا طا   ن دجن دب ضن ةنا ةل ة دع ةنا دع del is taller than Ahmed
2-
هت تا  طا اذ صا ب  ةنا دع ه فضن 
er
ا يو  
y
ىإ
i
.y →happier - funny funnier 
3-
  رب هت تا رصا صان دع ةصا  را را ركن ن رت ه 
er
.  bigger - hot→hotter - fat →fatter 
4-
ن رثأ ط  وكت تا صا  فضن 
more
ب ةنا ةلع دع ةصا ق 
than
.iful → more beautiful than rous→ more dangerous than he lion is more dangerous than the fox
5-
مدختسن ةصا أش  لتل ةنا دع
s
 ig - less expensive - less thin he fox is less dangerous than the lionدعق هلع ط ذش  ةيزلجنا ةغلا  دوي 
er 

est
:  
SuperlativeComparativeAdjectiveSuperlativeComparativetive
leastmostmostlessmoremoreلق littleةكل رث muchدل رث many  bestworstfarthest/furthest better worsefarther/furtheد ء دب مدختس 
as ….as 
. يست ش ع رت  Ex. Omar is as tall as Ahmed. The wolf is as dangerous as the lion.ن 
as …..as 
و
 not as …. As.
Ex. Mary is not as tall as Ahmed. 
ةه تظح 
1-
مادختب ةنا ة اد دن  كي 
a bit – much – a lot
.(   ًلق  )Ex. The box is a bit heavier than the bag.
 
( ع رثكب ةحا رث )Ex. Traveling by plane is a lot more comfortable than traveling by train.
2-
، ....  ) و  ش ب ةنل ر ول .
The more ….., the more.…
(Ex. The more your work, the more your gain.
3-
 ك ، ط  وكت تا صا ب بولا ه مدختسن 
er
 
more
) ث quiet – clever – narrow – simple(ون  طتسن cleverer thanmore clever than.
Exercises
 
1-Choose the correct answer  .
-Question two is not
( much – too – far – as )
difficult as question one.-The question is
( difficult – the most difficult – more difficult )
of all. 
2-Correct the following adjectives .
-This is the
( interesting )
book I have ever read.-The weather today is
( good )
than it was last year . 
3- Rewrite the following using the word(s) in brackets to give the same meaning  .
-The house and the villa are the same price.
( expensive(
- No mountain in the world is higher than Everest.
( highest(ـــمـــ 
ةيزلجنا ةغلا دعاوق )Grammar وتشا مسح .ا (
Countable & uncountable nouns
ودعملا ريغ و ودعملا ءما
:ا ب ق ، د ر وك  ك  د وك  ك ةيزلجنا ةغلا  ءا
ودعملا ريغUncountableودعملاCountable
-I eat rice every day.-I like rice.ةل  حن riceدحا كش  دوي ح د ر اون  طتسن  two ricesone rice. -a banana every day-e bananasةل   حن  banana 
 
 را  ح ، د اa bananaجا   bananas. مدختسنa – an:ون  دا ر ا  a water a tea a sugar :وا طتسن ك  a bowl of rice a drop of water  a cup of tea a game of tennisمدختسن a – an.را دا ا  ok an orange a tableمدختسن  طتسن any – some. دا ر ءا  -We listened to some music.-Do you listen to any music?دا ر ءا  مدختسن  ًضيmuch (رث)little .(لق )-I have a little work to do.-much sugar much adviceمدختسن  طتسن any – some دا ءا  .جا-re are some books-there any booksمدختسن  ًضيmany (رث)fewا ءا  (لق) .جا ةح  -re are many students in school-re are a few students in school 
:ةظح 
:ث ( ر غ  د رت  ك ) د ر ء رت تا  ءا ب ةيزلجنا ةغلا  دوي funsilver travelclothingknowledgework informationscenery bloodfreedom progressweather  baggagechaosnewstrafficadvice breadfurnitureluggageationssionةلث-I am looking for work. It is nice weather today. :ث ىا  تا  د ر  د  مدختس  كي تا لكا  رثكا room – time – hair – paper – experience..:ا ب ق UncountableCountable-I need some paper to write on.. ىب ء -You have got very long hair .ونhairs.ك را دصي ح -They offered me the job because I had a lot of ونexperiences.ر ىب  experience. -You can't sit here. There isn't room.ىب space.ست -I can't wait. I haven't got time..زا ىب -ught a paper to readء  paper .دير ىب -re's a hair in my soupـب وصاa hair .دحا رش -d some interesting experiences while I was.ح   دح ج ىب ay-can stay with us, there is a spare roomةر ىب -oy your holiday. – Have a good timeر ىب 

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