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Biology Notes (Carbohydrates)

Biology Notes (Carbohydrates)

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H2 Biology notes on Carbohydrates
H2 Biology notes on Carbohydrates

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Published by: Teo Jia Ming Nickolas on Jun 19, 2011
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03/09/2013

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Done by Nickolas TeoJia Ming, CG 12/11
Carbohydrates
Monosaccharide
Monosaccharides
are carbohydrates which cannot be hydrolyzed to simpler carbohydrates
Isomers
are different compounds with the same molecular formulaAll monosaccharaides contain a
carbonyl group
(C=O)
Aldose
sugars contain the aldehyde group
Ketose
sugars contain the ketone groupWhen a pentose or hexose is dissolved in water, their relatively long chains can bend, causing thecarbonyl group to be close enough to react with one of the hydroxyl group. There would always be acarbon molecule sticking out of the
carbon ringGlucose
can exist in two possible ring forms, -glucose and -glucose.In
-glucose
, the hydroxyl group on carbon 1 projects below the ringIn
-glucose
, the hydroxyl group on carbon 1 projects above the ring-glucose and -glucose are
interconvertible
in aqueous solution.
Function
of monosaccharides:
y
 
Trioses (3)
o
 
They are
intermediates
in respiration and photosynthesis
y
 
P
entoses (5), like ribose, deoxyribose
o
 
They are involved in the
synthesis of nucleic acids
(RNA and DNA)
o
 
They are involved in the
synthesis of ATP
 
y
 
H
exoses (6), like glucose and fructose and galactose
o
 
They are a
source of energy
 
o
 
They are involved in the
synthesis of disaccharides
 
o
 
Glucose is used to
synthesize polysaccharides
 
Disaccharides
 
Done by Nickolas TeoJia Ming, CG 12/11Disaccharides are
sweet
and
readily soluble in water
 Disaccharides are formed by a
condensation
reaction between two monosaccharidesThe bond formed between the two monosaccharaides is a
1-4glycosidic bond
The 1-4 glycosidic bond is normally formed between carbon atom 1 and carbon 4 of neighboringmonosaccharaides units, between the O
H
molecules (condensation reaction)The monosaccharides are now called
residues
 The glycosidic bond can be broken by
hydrolysis
 There are
three disaccharides
: maltose, lactose and sucrose
y
 
Maltose
is commonly produced as a product of the digestion of starch, by the enzymes amylases
y
 
L
actose
is found exclusively in milk, and is an important source of energy for young mammals
y
 
S
ucrose
is the most abundant disaccharide in nature and is non-reducing. It is found commonlyin plants, and is used as a medium to transport food. This is because it is very soluble (allowing itto be moved efficiently in high concentrations) and chemically relatively unreactive
Hydrolysis
H
ydrolysis is the
addition of water
to the molecules to split it into two smaller molecules
H
ydrolysis can occur though
enzymatic
or
chemical
means
y
 
E
nzymatic method: Incubate the disaccharide with
enzyme
at room temperature
y
 
Chemical method: Incubate the disaccharide with
dilute acid at 100
o
C
 
Polysaccharides
P
olysaccharides are
polymers
of monosaccharaides, and are non-reducingThere are two groups of polysaccharides,
storage
and
structural
 
y
 
S
torage polysaccharides are
starch
and
glycogen
.
o
 
They are
large
molecules and are thus
insoluble
in water.
 
This allows them to be stored in large amounts without having any great effecton the water potential of cells
 
They also cannot diffuse out of the cells easily, preventing them from gettinglost.
o
 
They also fold into
compact
shapes
 
Allowing a large amount to be stored in a
fixed volume
(the cells)
o
 
They are easily hydrolyzed to monosaccharaides
 
Can quickly provide energy when required
 
Done by Nickolas TeoJia Ming, CG 12/11
y
 
S
tructural polysaccharides is
cellulose
 
S
tarch
Function
: As a storage carbohydrate in plant cells (not produced by animal cells), where it is a
major fuelstore.
 
H
umans manly consume starch from wheat, rice and corn, and we possess enzymes to hydrolyzethe starch into glucose for cellular uses
S
tructural features:
y
 
It is a
large molecule
made up of many  glucose units
o
 
Causing it to be
insoluble
in water
 
This allows them to be stored in large amounts without having any great effecton the water potential of cells
 
They also cannot diffuse out of the cells easily, preventing them from gettinglost.
y
 
It is folded into
compact
shapes
o
 
Allowing large amounts to be stored within a
fixed volume
 
o
 
They can accumulate to form starch grains, which are made of layers of starch
Components
:
y
 
Amylose
o
 
It has a
straight chain
structure consisting of several thousand glucose residues joinedby  (1-4) glycosidic bonds
o
 
The  (1-4) glycosidic bonds result in the chain
coiling helically
into a more compactshape
 
The helix is a cylinder with most of the O
H
groups projecting inwards , whichare capable of forming cross linkages (
H
ydrogen bonds)
 
There are six glucose units for every complete turn of the helix
o
 
There is
no
cross-linking between chains
y
 
Amylopectin
o
 
It has a
highly branched
structure, causing it to be compact.
o
 
The branches are formed by  (1-6) glycosidic bonds
 
It is formed by joining (though a condensation reaction)  glucose molecules toamylose
 
This causes it to be
both
branched and coiled
o
 
It has
twice
as many glucose residues as amylase
o
 
There is
no
cross-linking between chains
Glycogen
Function:
It is a storage carbohydrate in liver and muscles of vertebrate animals and in may fungi

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