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Septic Tank

Septic Tank

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Published by hanslo123
FOSSE SEPTIQUE
FOSSE SEPTIQUE

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Published by: hanslo123 on Jun 19, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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12/12/2013

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 C-1
SECTION C:SEPTIC/SEWAGE TANKS
Septic Tank OperationAdditivesSeptic TanksTanks for Other EstablishmentsTank ConstructionHolding TanksTank MaintenanceSeptage DisposalOdors From Tanks
 
 C-2
SEPTIC/SEWAGE TANKS
The use of Sewage Tank or Septic Tank is assumed to mean the same tank inthis manual.Septic tanks are used as the primary (first) or only pretreatment step in nearly allonsite systems regardless of daily wastewater flow rate or strength. Other mechanical pretreatment units may be substituted for septic tanks, but evenwhen these are used septic tanks often precede them. The tanks passivelyprovide suspended solids removal, solids storage and digestion, and some peakflow attenuation.The septic tank is the most commonly used wastewater treatment unit for onsitewastewater systems. The tank provides primary treatment by creating quiescentconditions for anaerobic bacteria inside a covered, watertight vessel, which isburied. In addition to primary treatment, the septic tank stores and its bacteriapartially digest settled and floating organic solids in the sludge and scum layers.This can reduce the sludge and scum volumes by as much as 40 %, and itconditions the wastewater by decomposing organic molecules for subsequenttreatment in the soil or by other unit processes (Baumann et al., 1978).Gases generated from digestion of the organics are vented back through thehouse and out the plumbing stack vent pipe. The inlet tee is designed to limitshort circuiting if incoming wastewater across the tank, while outlet tee isdesigned to retain the scum and sludge in the tank and draw effluent from theclear zone in the middle of the tank depth.
Septic Tank Operation
Sewage Wastes
All of the wastewater from the home must go into the sewage tank. Some earlywastewater systems had a separate discharge for “gray water” wastewater thatdid not include the toilet: typically sink and washing machine water. Gray water is considered sewage water and must be treated with the other wastewaterbecause all gray water contains some amount of solids and FOGs.Do not run laundry wastes directly into a drainfield or any other type of secondarytreatment, since soap, detergent scums, or clothing fibers can quickly clog thesoil pores or treatment filter, causing failure.While excessive amounts of any household chemical should not be used, normalamounts of detergents, bleaches, drain cleaners, toilet bowl deodorizers, andother household chemicals can be used and will not harm the bacterial action inthe septic tank.
 
 C-3
Non-Decomposable Materials
Do not deposit coffee grounds, wet-strength towels, disposable diapers, facialtissues, cigarette butts, feminine hygiene products, and similar non-decomposable materials into the sewage system. These materials will cause arapid accumulation of solids in the septic tank.Avoid dumping cooking fats or grease down the drain. These materials may plugsewer pipes or build up in the septic tank and plug the inlet or filter. Keep aseparate container for waste grease and discard it separately from the sewagesystem..
Garbage Disposal Wastes
If a garbage disposal is used, septic tank capacity should be increased by 250gallons, the minimum Chapter 69 requirement, over that required for dwellings or other establishments without disposals. These septic tanks fill with solids quicker and must also be pumped more frequently than for systems that do not servegarbage disposals. Also, garbage disposals grind materials into fine particlesthat do not settle quickly out in the septic tank and can pass through the tank intothe secondary treatment system.It is better to compost, incinerate or throw out garbage with the trash. Eventhough materials like lettuce, carrot tops and potato peelings are organic, they donot break down completely in the septic tank, thus adding volume to theaccumulated solids in the tank.
Toilet Tissue
Toilet tissue that breaks up easily when wet should be used. To determinesuitable quality tissue, place a portion in a jar half full of water and shake the jar.If the tissue breaks up easily, the product is suitable.The color of the toilet tissue should have no effect on the septic system as longas the tissue breaks up easily when wet. High wet-strength toilet tissue oftencauses plugging problems. Many scented toilet tissues are of high wet-strength.
Detergents
Detergents can cause problems with septic systems by disrupting bacterialactivity in the tank and treatment system.
People generally use more laundrydetergent than is actually needed
. If the automatic washer discharges a largeamount of suds after the washing cycle, the amount of washing products shouldbe reduced. Bleach as a laundry additive can cause problems for the system.Bleach is toxic to the bacteria in the septic tank, so excessive use is harmful.One to three cups of bleach per week added to a residential septic systemshould not be a problem.

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