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Engine Testing

Engine Testing

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Published by aashiquear

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Categories:Types, Speeches
Published by: aashiquear on Jun 20, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Engine Testing
Testing of ICEs is an important part of research, development and teaching
Engine tests are performed to -- find out performance before mass production and flitting it into a vehicle- improve the design and configuration, to integrate new materials and technology- find out the power and fuel consumption, also to test effectiveness of cooling,vibration and noise, lubrication, controllability, etc.
Basic Instrumentation for Engine Test
Power/torque measurement
Engine speed measurement
Air flow rate measurement
Fuel flow rate measurement
Test Equipment and instruments- Emission equipment, Thermocouples, Pressure transducers (in cylinder measurement),Turbine flow meters, Smoke measurement, Fuel measurement, Blow-by measurement, Airflow measurement
The fundamental output of the engine is engine torque, usually expressed in N-m
Torque/power is measured by a dynamometer or an in-line device
The principle is rather simple - typically the engine flywheel has a band of friction materialaround its circumference, and the torque reaction on the friction material corresponds to thetorque output of the engine
The term Brake Horse Power (bhp) derives from the simplest form of engine dynamometer,the friction brake (or Prony brake)
Dynamometer Types
Another type of dyno is the electric dyno which acts as a generator to absorb power fromthe engine- Advantage of this is that it can be used as motor for starting engine, and formotoring tests (when the engine is run at operating speeds without combustion) todetermine the mechanical losses in the engine
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Torque output or load absorbed by the dyno is controlled by the dyno field strength
Other common type of dynamometer is the water brake- A vaned rotor tums adjacent to a pair of vaned stators- The sluice gates separate the stators from the rotor, and these control the toadabsorbed by the dyno
Dynamometers can be classified by the type of absorption unit or absorber/driver that theyuse
Some of these are as follows:- Eddy current or electromagnetic brake (absorption)
used in modern chassis dynos
provide the quick load change rate for rapid load setting
air cooled, but some are designed to require external water cooling systems
require an electrically conductive core, shaft or disc, moving across amagnetic field to produce resistance to movement
use variable electromagnets to change the magnetic field strength to controlthe amount of braking- Magnetic powder brake (absorption)
similar to an eddy current dynamometer, but a fine magnetic powder isplaced in the air gap between the rotor and the coil
The resulting flux lines
create “chains”
of metal particulate that areconstantly built and broken apart during rotation creating great torque
typically limited to lower RPM due to heat dissipation issues- Hysteresis Brake dynamometers (absorption)
use a steel rotor that is moved through flux lines generated between magneticpole pieces
as in the usual
“disc type”
eddy current absorbers, allows for full torque to beproduced at zero speed, as well as full speed
Hysteresis and
“disc typ
EC dynamometer are one of the most efficienttechnologies in small (200 hp (150 kW) and less) dynamometer
A hysteresis brake is an eddy current absorber that unlike most
disc ty
 eddy current absorber puts the electromagnet coils inside a vented and ribbedcylinder and rotates the cylinder, instead of rotating a disc betweenelectromagnets
The potential benefit for the hysteresis absorber is that the diameter can bedecreased and operating RPM of the absorber may be increased- Electric motor/generator dynamometer (absorb or drive)
absorption/driver unit can be either an AC motor or OC motor
electric motor/generator dynamometer can be configured as universaldynamometers
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universal dynamometers can not only absorb the power of the engine butalso, drive the engine for measuring friction, pumping losses and other factors
generally more costly and complex than other types of dynamometers- Fan brake (absorption)
A fan is used to blow air to provides engine load- Hydraulic brake (absorption)
consists of a hydraulic pump (usually a gear type pump), a fluid reservoirand piping between the two parts
the fluid used was hydraulic oil, but recent synthetic multi-grade oils may bea better choice
the engine is brought up to the desired RPM and the valve is incrementallyclosed and as the pumps outlet is restricted, the load increases and the throttleis simply opened until at the desired throttle opening
power is calculated by factoring flow volume (calculated from pump designspecs), hydraulic pressure and RPM
renowned for having the absolute quickest load change ability, just slightlysurpassing the eddy current absorbers- Water brake (absorption)
noted for their high power capability, small package light-weight, andrelatively low manufacturing cost as compared to other, quicker reacting
drawbacks are that they can take a relatively long period of time to 'stabilize'their load amount and the fact that they require a constant supply of water tothe
 brake housing” for 
The housing attempts to rotate in response to the torque produced but isrestrained by the scale or torque metering cell that measures the torque
Hydraulic Dynamometer
Torque absorbed by the dyno increases with speed
By varying the throttle and sluice gate setting, any operating point should be attainable
For stable operation the dyno operating lines and throttle lines should intersect as close aspossible to 90"

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