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lC Engine Fuels

lC Engine Fuels

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Published by aashiquear

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Published by: aashiquear on Jun 20, 2011
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06/20/2011

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 Page | 1
IC Engine FuelsTheir Properties and Tests
Fuels for IC Engines
The main fuel for IC engines is derived from crude petroleum which is a mixture of manyhydrocarbon compounds
Crude oil is made up almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen with some traces of otherspecies
It varies from 83% to 87% carbon and 11% to 14% hydrogen by weight
The crude oil mixture which is taken from the ground is separated into component productsby cracking and/or distillation using thermal or catalytic methods
lt is entirely possible, but not economically feasible to convert almost completely the crudepetroleum into gasoline and diesel fuel
   T   h   i  s   D  o  c  u  m  e  n   t   i  s  p  r  e  p  a  r  e   d  u  s   i  n  g   O   C   R   f  r  o  m    t   h  e   O  r   i   i  n  a   l   D  o  c  u  m  e  n   t
 
 Page | 2
The Paraffin family (Alkanes) open chain structure (aliphatic hydrocarbons) with generalformula C
n
H
2n+2
 - The critical compression ratio (CR) for audible knock in an SI engine decreasesrapidly as the length of the chain of the normal members is increased- Thus the normal paraffins in the volatility range of gasoline are poor SI fuels
The reference scale to measure SI knock has been established by arbitrarily selecting twoprimary reference fuels
 – 
iso-octane (2,2,4 trimethyl pentane) has been arbitrarily assigned an
“octane rating” of 100 while n
-
heptane has been assigned an “octa
ne
rating” of zero
 
The knock ratings of the fuels are in rough proportion to the self-ignition temperatures
In progressing downward with higher carbons, the suitability of the fuels tor SIEprogressively decreases, and for CI engines, progressively increases
 – 
thus, hexadecane(cetane) has a low self-ignition temperature and therefore it is a good fuel to prevent knock ina CIE
The reference scale for measuring CI knock is based upon hexadecane andheptamethylnonane as primary fuels with assigned values of 100 cetane and 15 cetanerespectively
Interestingly, the air-fuel ratio (AFR) for the chemically correct mixture is essentiallyconstant even though the fuel structure and phase change
Because of this constancy, various fuels can be supplied to SIE without changing thecarburettor adjustment
Also that the energy content per unit volume of mixture is essentially constant andtherefore the power output of the engine is not affected by a change in fuels (unless knock ispresent)
The fuels of this family are stable, clean burning and do not attack gaskets or metals
 
 Page | 3
The Olefin family (Alkenes) - the mono-olefins have open-chain structures (aliphaticolefins) with general formula C
n
H
2n
 
The physical properties correspond closely to similar compounds in the paraffin family andare also clean burning and a higher octane rating
Because of the free bond, the olefins are chemically active and unite readily with hydrogento form the corresponding paraffin or naphthene
When they unite with oxygen, they form an undesirable residue, gum which can causesmog
The Di-olefin family - diolefins have two double bonds with a general formula C
n
H
2n+2
 
These are undesirable fuel components because, upon storage, reactions take place that leadto coloring of the fuel and, also, to the formation of a cloudy gum
The Naphthene or Cycloparaffin family (Cyclanes) - have the same general formula as theolefins but are saturated, ring-structure compounds
These are desirable components of motor gasoline
The Aromatic family (Benzene derivatives) - ring-structured hydrocarbons with generalformula C
n
H
2n+6
 
These are excellent gasoline fuels and can be selectively produced by catalytic cracking orby thermal cracking at high temperatures (1200° F)
Benzene or benzol is an excellent blending agent to raise the octane ratings of low-gradefuels
The aromatics have the highest densities of the HC and therefore have the highest heatingvalues per unit volume
These fuels are stable in storage, smoky in burning with high solvency powers
The Alcohols - are a partial oxidation product of petroleum with a chain structure of thegeneral formula R-OH, where R is the paraffin group
They have good antiknock qualities with octane ratings in excess of 100
Alcohols absorb water from atmosphere
They also require a different AFR than gasoline
Gas - or natural gas can be associated or unassociated
The composition of gas varies widely with methane usually predominating - from 60 to98% and with percentages of ethane and other paraffins along with carbon dioxide, helium,and nitrogen
A "sour gas" is one which contains hydrogen sulphide, otherwise, it is called "sweet gas"- Before the gas enters the pipeline it must be sweetened, dehydrated, and liquid HC removed
Synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) are produced from solid wastes, petroleum crudesor fractions, or coal
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) may be propane, butane, or a mixture of the two
Natural gas and LPG are excellent fuels for the SIE, home, and gas-diesel with lowemission pollutants
LNG and CNG are the two other versions of natural gas

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