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Chap 006

Chap 006

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Published by Asif Shaikh

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Published by: Asif Shaikh on Jun 20, 2011
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CHAPTER 6
Job Analysis and Design
Chapter Overview
Job analysis and design is often referred to as the cornerstone of HRM, and it has becomeincreasingly important for legal questions related to promotion and discrimination.This chapter emphasizes the major role that job analysis plays in HRM activities and programs and explains how each part of the diagnostic HRM model is affected by jobanalysis.Jobs are the building blocks of the organization. Therefore, it is essential that eachcharacteristic of each job in an organization be clearly understood.
Learning Objectives
After studying this chapter, students should be able to:1.
Define
the terms job analysis, job description, and job specification.2.
Illustrate
the uses that job analysis information can have in an organization’s HRM.3.
Describe
four methods used to collect job analysis information.4.
Interpret
job codes and information found in the Dictionary of Occupational Titles.5.
List
the five core job dimensions used in job enrichment programs.6.
Compare
the strengths and weaknesses of the mechanistic and motivationalapproaches to job design.7.
Describe
the ways that job descriptions are changing as the nature of jobs changes.
Barriers to Student Understanding
Students may have difficulty understanding the concepts of 
 job analysis
and
 job design
.Each concept covers a lot of information that the students may not have been exposed toyet, due to lack of work experience.However, students should have no difficulty understanding
 job description
,
 jobenrichment
, and
 job enlargement
, regardless of work experience.Students may believe that only the Human Resources department deals with these topics.They need to understand that the whole organization is affected by job analysis anddesign.
 
Lecture Outline
IntroductionThe Vocabulary of Job AnalysisThe Steps in Job AnalysisThe Uses of Job AnalysisWho Should Conduct the Job Analysis?The Use of ChartsMethods of Data CollectionObservationInterviewsQuestionnairesJob Incumbent Diary or LogWhich Method to Use?Specific Quantitative TechniquesFunctional Job AnalysisPosition Analysis QuestionnaireManagement Position Description QuestionnaireJob Descriptions and SpecificationsJob Analysis and Strategic Human Resource ManagementJob Analysis and Employee CompetenciesJob DesignScientific Management and the Mechanistic ApproachJob Enrichment: A Motivational ApproachWork-Family Balance and Job DesignJob Design: The Next Challenge
2Ivancevich, Human Resource Management, Ninth Edition
 
Key Points
To summarize the major points covered in this chapter:1.There are six sequential steps in job analysis, starting with examining the totalorganization and the fit of jobs, and concluding with the preparation of a jobspecification. (See exhibit 6-2)2.The
uses of job analysis
information seem endless. Strategic planning, recruitment,selection, training, compensation, and job design all benefit immensely from jobanalysis information.3.Conducting job analysis is not for amateurs. Training is required.4.Before conducting a job analysis, organization and process charts should be consultedto acquire an overview of the organization.5.Four general
 job analysis techniques
can be used separately or in combination;observation, interviews, questionnaires, and job incumbent diaries or logs.6.The multi-method approach to job analysis uses a combination of these four generalmethods. It is a comprehensive approach and is currently viewed very favorably froma legal perspective.7.Functional job analysis (FJA) is used to describe the nature of jobs, prepare jobdescriptions, and provide details on job specifications. The job is described in termsof data, people, and things.8.The
 Dictionary of Occupational Titles
is a listing of over 20,000 jobs on the basis of occupational code, title, and industry.9.The
position analysis questionnaire (PAQ)
is a 195-item structured instrumentused to quantitatively assess jobs on the basis of decision making, communicationand social responsibilities, performing skilled activities, being physically active,operating vehicles or equipment, and processing information.10.The
management position description questionnaire (MPDQ)
is a checklist of 208 items that assesses the concerns and responsibilities of managers.11.
Job design
involves structuring job elements, duties, and tasks to achieve optimal performance and satisfaction.12.Job design was a concern of F. W. Taylor, the famous industrial engineer and father of what is called scientific management.13.
Job enrichment
involves designing jobs so that employees’ needs for growth,recognition, and responsibility are satisfied.14.
Reengineering
is more than job design. It is taking a new look at the entire flow of work through an organization. Without adaptable job descriptions, however, itcannot succeed.
 Instructors Manual/Chapter 63

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