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TEST on Powder Metallurgy

TEST on Powder Metallurgy

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04/28/2012

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Test on Powder metallurgy
1.
 
Describe the process of Powder MetallurgyPowder metallurgy
is a forming and fabrication technique consisting of three major  processing stages. First, the primary material is physically powdered, divided into manysmall individual particles. Next, the powder is injected into a mold or passed through adie to produce a weakly cohesive structure (via cold welding) very near the dimensions of the object ultimately to be manufactured. Pressures of 10-50 tons per square inch arecommonly used. Also, to attain the same compression ratio across more complex pieces,it is often necessary to use lower punches as well as an upper punch. Finally, the end partis formed by applying pressure, high temperature, long setting times (during which self-welding occurs), or any combination thereof.Two main techniques used to form and consolidate the powder are sintering and metalinjection molding. Recent developments have made it possible to use rapidManufacturing techniques which use the metal powder for the products. Because withthis technique the powder is melted and not sintered, better mechanical strength can beaccomplished.2.
 
Describe the Sintering Process as related to Powder Metallurgy Technology
.Solid state sintering is the process of taking metal in the form of a powder and placing itinto a mold or die. Once compacted into the mold the material is placed under a high heatfor a long period of time. Under heat, bonding takes place between the porous aggregate particles and once cooled the powder has bonded to form a solid piece.Sintering can be considered to proceed in three stages. During the first, neck growth proceeds rapidly but powder particles remain discrete. During the second, mostdensification occurs, the structure recrystallizes and particles diffuse into each other.During the third, isolated pores tend to become spheroidal and densification continues ata much lower rate. The words Solid State in Solid State Sintering simply refer to the statethe material is in when it bonds, solid meaning the material was not turned molten to bond together as alloys are formed.One recently developed technique for high-speed sintering involves passing highelectrical current through a powder to preferentially heat the asperities. Most of theenergy serves to melt that portion of the compact where migration is desirable for densification; comparatively little energy is absorbed by the bulk materials and formingmachinery. Naturally, this technique is not applicable to electrically insulating powders.
 
 
3
.
 
(
i) Write down one major advantage of Powder metallurgy as compared to otherManufacturing processes.
(
ii) List down FIVE disadvantages and any two limitations associated with PowderMetallurgy processingAdvantages
 The greatest advantage powder metallurgy methods have over other processes is that it does notwaste material - P/M process is capable of less than 3% scrap losses. Almost all the material notused to make the product is left in its powdered form and can be recycled for use with the next product.
Limitations
 There disadvantages associated with P/M processing. These include:
y
 
high tooling costs
y
 
expensive raw materials (powders)
y
 
variation in material density and mechanical properties across the volume
y
 
relatively long parts are difficult to manufacture
y
 
Difficult storing and handling of powders (degradation with time and fire hazard with particular metallic powders).
There are some limitations
on the shape of the parts. Undercuts, cross holes, and screwthreads are best provided with secondary operations. In general, P/M parts have lowresistance to shock loading and lower physical properties than wrought metals.
4.
 
Describe briefly three Powder Metallurgy processes
After the metallic powders have been produced and classified, the subsequent P/M process sequence consists of three major steps: (1) blending and mixing of powders, (2)compaction, and (3) sintering, in addition to a number of optional secondary finishingand manufacturing operations used to improve either the shape and size or the material or functional properties of the P/M part.
B
lending and mixing
These are two identical operations in which powders are thoroughly mixed. The onlydifference between blending and mixing is in the composition of the powder mixture produced:
y
 
Blending: mixing powders of the same chemical composition but different sizes;
y
 
Mixing: process of combining powders of different chemistriesThe blending and mixing, which are done under controlled conditions (i.e. in an inertatmosphere, or in a liquid to avoid contamination and deterioration), is done to...
y
 
Produce an uniform distribution of par ticle sizes and shapes;

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