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Russo-Japanese Relations in the North Pacific: The Kuril Islands Dispute / Paper

Russo-Japanese Relations in the North Pacific: The Kuril Islands Dispute / Paper

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Published by HeroTwin

This paper examines in detail the Kuril Islands dispute between Russia and Japan. From the beginning of relations in the late 18th century to the formation of the 'four-island-position' in the 1950s, this paper analyzes the dispute chronologically with special focus given to the major events that shaped claims on both sides. It draws from a range of well known academic sources, but also provides original insight and argument where relevant. The paper closes with a list of hypothetical outcomes for the conflict and discusses thoroughly the feasibility of each.

This paper examines in detail the Kuril Islands dispute between Russia and Japan. From the beginning of relations in the late 18th century to the formation of the 'four-island-position' in the 1950s, this paper analyzes the dispute chronologically with special focus given to the major events that shaped claims on both sides. It draws from a range of well known academic sources, but also provides original insight and argument where relevant. The paper closes with a list of hypothetical outcomes for the conflict and discusses thoroughly the feasibility of each.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: HeroTwin on Jun 20, 2011
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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05/15/2014

 
5
S^VVJ$HE[EANVN SN@EYMJAV MA YGN AJSYG [EFMLMF
 Ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv * Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv Imv{~yn
C} Vncevymea E! Cefm~ 'V!E!C!-
 
 ECYSEFY!
 Ygmv vy~i} emdv yj {sj|min e ygjsj~og v~s|n} jl ygn {nsymanay in|n`j{dnayv ygey ge|nfjaysmc~yni yj ygn f~ssnay vyeyn jl ygn S~vvj$He{eanvn ynssmyjsme` imv{~yn ma ygn ajsyg [efmlmf! Cnfe~vn ygnfjaynd{jses} vyeyn jl ellemsv mv cevni gne|m`} ja gmvyjsmfe` f`emdv eai mayns{snyeymjav jl nes`} ysneymnv my mvanfnvves} yj ~ainsvyeai gjw ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv imv{~yn {sjosnvvni gmvyjsmfe``}! Ygmv vy~i} cnomav c} m``~vyseymao gjw sn`eymjav cnywnna He{ea eai S~vvme lmsvy in|n`j{ni eai wgey sj`n ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv {`e}ni ma ygnms nes`} sn`eymjavgm{! V{nfme` eyynaymja mv om|na yj ygn ywj nmogynnayg fnay~s} ysneymnv 'ygn Vgmdjie [efy eai ygn Ysney} jl Vy! [nynsvc~so- wgmfg esn jlyna fmyni ev `noe` {snfninafn ma ygn inceyn v~ssj~aimao ygn mv`eaiv! Ygn anyvnfymja invfsmcnv gjw _js`i _es MM
fjaysmc~yni yj ygn mv`eaiv” gmvyjs} eai ~`ymdeyn`} fgeaoni ygnms invyma} 
! Maygmv fjayny wn e`vj in{mfy ygn sj`n {`e}ni c} ygn ^amyni Vyeynv eai n{`ema gjw dm`myes} vyseyno} eai vnf~smy} fjavminseymjav dmogy ge|n ~`ymdeyn`} fjaysmc~yni yj ygn {jvy$wes vyey~v u~j! Eiimymjae``} wn f`jvn`} nedmanygn vnsmnv jl n|nayv ~{ yj eai maf`~imao Vj|mny eaaneymja jl ygn mv`eaiv! Ygn {na~`ymdeyn vnfymja eae`}vnv ygn{jvy$wes vmy~eymja l~sygns eai {e}v n{`mfmy gnni yj ygn 5=>>$>< anojymeymjav ma @jaija wgmfg vew cjygfj~aysmnv fjdn yj ygn csmab jl vnyy`ndnay! Ygn lmae` vnfymja v~ddesmxnv ygn ve`mnay {jmayv ja cjyg vminv jl ygndjinsa eso~dnay eai c} imvf~vvmao `noe` {snfninafn eai gmvyjsmfe` f`emdv e`vj eyynd{yv yj n|e`~eyn wgey |e`~nygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv dmogy snyema ma djinsa ymdnv! _myg ygn ndnsonafn jl ygn S~vvmea Lninseymja eai ygn nai jl ygn Fj`i _es ygn gj{n gev ndnsoni ygey e snvj`~ymja yj ygmv infeinv$j`i fjal`mfy dmogy cn ey geai!~vy ecj|n ygn N
esyg”v 9<
yg
{ese``n` `e}v ygn dmajs onjose{gmf jcvf~smy} bajwa ev ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv! Ygn B~sm` Esfgm{n`eojfjavmvyv jl sj~og`} >< mv`eaiv eai mv`nyv ygey vysnyfg ajsyg lsjd Gjbbemij He{ea smogy ~{ yj ygn Bedfgeybe [namav~`e ma ygnS~vvmea Les Nevy e {esy jl ygn eidmamvyseym|n snomja bajwa ev Bedfgeybe Bsem
5
! Ygmv esne mv fjddja`} snlnssni yj ev ygn
{efmlmf ‗smao jl lmsn” e snomja
{sjan yj v~cvyeayme` vnmvdmf mavyecm`my} eai |j`feamf efym|my}! Ma lefy e a~dcns jl ygn mv`eaiv esnefy~e``} ygn {nebv jl vyseyj|j`feajnv wgmfg {sjys~in lsjd ygn [efmlmf Jfnea! J|nse`` ygn snomja gev ea magjv{myec`n v~c$esfymff`mdeyn wmyg `jao gesvg wmaynsv eai |ns} vgjsy v~ddnsv! Ajanygn`nvv cjyg desman eai ynssnvysme` nfj`jo} efsjvv ygn esfgm{n`eojmv nysndn`} im|nsvn eai ygn mv`eaiv esn {esymf~`es`} wn`` bajwa ljs ygnms ec~aieafn jl |esmj~v vne$iwn``mao v{nfmnv maf`~imao vn|nse` naindmf y}{nv jl vne`! Ygn vj~ygnsa mv`eaiv ma {esymf~`es esn snajwani ljs ygnms |evy ysefyv jl {smvyman eai ~av{jm`ni ljsnvy wgmfg m
v vemi yj snvndc`n wgey Gjbbemij”v `ea
ivfe{n `jjbni `mbn cnljsn j|nsfjdn c} g~dea in|n`j{dnay! ]ny ygn B~sm` Mv`eaivge|n nesani ygnms {`efn ma gmvyjs} ajy ljs ygnms aey~se` v{`naij~s c~y cnfe~vn ygn} esn ey ygn fjsn jl e `jaovyeaimao ynssmyjsme`fjal`mfy cnywnna S~vvme eai He{ea!Invfsmcmao ygn nefy fgema jl n|nayv ygey gev `ni yj ygn {snvnay ie} {j`mymfe` vmy~eymja mv e |nsmyec`n ymogysj{n we`b! Ygn fge``naoncnomav wmyg ygn |ns} aedn jan ~vnv wgna invfsmcmao ygn B~sm` Esfgm{n`eoj!
3
S~vvme ~vnv ygn ynsd
B~sm` Mv`eaiv
yj snlns yj e`` ><mv`eaiv ygey fjavymy~yn ygn onjose{gmf naymsny} jl ygn esfgm{n`eoj {sj{ns! Ja ygn jygns geai ygn He{eanvn wgna v{nebmao jl ygnmv`eaiv
jlyna snlns yj ygnd ev ygn ‗Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv”! Gjwn|ns ygmv ynsd efy~e``} invfsmcnv ja`} ygn 9 vj~ygnsadjvy mv`eaivygey He{ea f`emdv ev {esy jl myv vj|nsnmoa ynssmyjs}! Yg~v ljs ygn He{eanvn ygn ‗B~sm` Mv`eaiv” fjavmvy ja`} jl 
ygn >3 mv`eaiv yj wgmfgygn} ge|n aj f`emd
 ‖ 
js wgmfg ygn} ij ajy wmvg yj f`emd! E`ygj~og ygn djvy snfnay fgeaon jl vj|nsnmoay} jff~ssni wgna ygnVj|mny Les Nevy N{nimymjaes} ljsfnv eaanni ygn mv`eaiv yjwesi ygn nai jl ygn Vnfjai _js`i _es ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv ge|n cnna eyygn fnaysn jl ygn He{eanvn$S~vvmea {j`mymfe` sn`eymjavgm{ ljs djsn ygea e fnay~s}! 'Jb~}ede 3;;6 [! 6?- Yj ygn ~amamymeyni ygmvimv{~yn de} cn vnna ev vjdnwgey jl ea eaefgsjamvd2 e inceyn ygey vgj~`i ge|n naini {sjd{y`} eai u~mny`} wmyg ygn nai _es! Elyns e`` u~e`my} jl `mln ma ygn Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv mv sn`eym|n`} {jjs eai ygn
snomja”v
nfjajdmf |e`~n `mnv {smdesm`} ma ygnms lmvgmao snvns|nv! _gm`n my de} cn eso~ni ygey ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv wnsn vyseynomfe``} |e`~ec`n i~smao ygn Fj`i _es v~fg {sefymfe`fjavminseymjav ij ajy lmo~sn ma ygn djinsa eso~dnay! Ygn fjaynd{jses} ynssmyjsme` imv{~yn gev inonanseyni les naj~og ygey
5
E Bsem mv e lninse` v~chnfy jl ygn S~vvmea Lninseymja! _gm`n S~vvme mv fjaynd{jsesm`} im|mini mayj 76 v~chnfyv ja`} = jl ygn
vn esn efy~e``} ‗Bsemv”! @noe``} 
gjwn|ns ygnsn mv `myy`n js aj imllnsnafn cnywnna e Bsem eai ea Jc`evy wgmfg mv eajygns y}{n jl eidmamvyseym|n snomja! Ygn Bedfgeybe Bsem wev ljsdni ev e snv~`yjl e dnsons cnywnna ygn Bedfgeybe Jc`evy eai ygn Bjs}eb E~yjajdj~v Jbs~o! Ljs e djsn nge~vym|n eae`}vmv jl ygn {snfmvn aey~sn jl S~vvmea `noe` vyeynv eaicjimnv ma ygn {jvy$vj|mny nse ygn sneins mv snlnssni yj
Ygn [jvy$Vj|mny _esv8 Sncn``mja, Nygamf Fjal`mfy, eai Aeymjagjji ma ygn Fe~fev~v 
c} Fgsmvyj{g Xðsfgns! 'A]^ [snvv3;;? [! 3?- Lmae``} ygn sneins vgj~`i ajy snyema lsjd ygn ecj|n effj~ay js effjd{ea}mao n{`eaeymja ygey ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv esn {esy jl ygn Bedfgeybe Bsem! Ygn} esn efy~e``} {esy jl ygn Vebge`ma Jc`evy c~y ygn ajsygnsadjvy mv`eaiv ygndvn`|nv esn ma |ns} f`jvn {sjmdmy} yj ygn Bedfgeybe Bsem!
 
3
Sneinsv esn ei|mvni ygey ygsj~ogj~y ygn fj~svn jl ygmv vy~i} ygn e~ygjs ~vnv ygn ynsd B~sm` Esfgm{n`eoj eai B~sm` Mv`eaiv maynsfgeaonec`} yj snlns yj ygn
onjose{gmf naymsny} jl ygn mv`eai fgema! Ygn ynsd ‗Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv” mv ~vni ja`} wmyg snoesi yj ygn vj~ygnsadjvy 9 mv
`eaiv f`emdni ev vj|nsnmoa He{eanvnynssmyjs}! _myg snv{nfy yj ygn S~vvmea {jvmymja eai evvjfmeyni aedmao fja|naymjav ygn
ynsd ‗B~sm` Mv`eaiv” mv nd{`j}ni
e{j`mymfe``} ma ygmv {e{ns eai mv ajymaynaini yj naijsvn js {sjdjyn ea} {esymf~`es imv{~yeay!
 
3seymjae` eso~dnayv eai fev~mvymf n{`eaeymjav fea aj `jaons v~llmfmnay`} invfsmcn ygn cnge|mj~s jl nmygns fj~ays} js ygnmsfjssnv{jaimao ynssmyjsme` f`emdv!
M! Eaynfninayv jl ygn Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv Imv{~yn8
He{ea”v Nw{eaimao Nd{msn
 
y wj~`i vnnd ygey ygn e~ygjsv jl gmvyjs} `eson`} eosnn ygey He{ea wev lmsvy yj vny ljjy ja wgey ygn} ajw snoesi ev ygnms
m``nomymdeyn`} jff~{mni ‗Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv”!
Ja e de{ ieymao cefb yj ygn vnfjai$ge`l jl ygn 5?
yg
fnay~s} ygn B~sm` Mv`eaivesn f`nes`} in{mfyni e`jaovmin Vebge`ma eai ygn vj~ygnsa ym{ jl ygn Bedfgeybe {namav~`e!
‐Effjsimao yj gmvyjsmfe` ieye ma 5<99 ygn ‗fnayse` oj|nsadnay jl Yjb 
}j evbni nefg `jsi yj vnai e de{jl ygnms jwa `eaiv ma jsins yj debn ~{ ygn fjd{`nyn de{ jl He{ea! @jsi Deyv~den vnay e de{maf`~imao ygn wgj`n Vebge`ma B~sm` Mv`eaiv eai Bedfgeybe {namav~`e! Ygmv de{ fe``ni Vgjgj$jb~am$nxj mv ygn j`invy nmvymao de{ ygey isewv ygmv {esy jl ygn wjs`i
!—
6
 
 _gm`n my mv ajy {snfmvn`} f`nes wgna ygnvn esnev de} ge|n cnna v~s|n}ni mamyme``} my mv veln yj evv~dn ygey efy~e` g~dea {snvnafn jaygn mv`eaiv wj~`i ge|n cnna anfnvves} vjdn vmoamlmfeay {nsmji jl ymdn cnljsn ygn ieyn jl {~c`mfeymja! Ma dea} we}v ygn nefyieyn jl lmsvy n{`jseymja mv `eson`} ysm|me` cnfe~vn ygn Vgjgj Jb~am Nxj de{ ev e ijf~dnay {snfninv ea} bajwa n{`jseymja jl ygnB~sm` Mv`eaiv c} S~vvme! S~vvme cnoea gns `noef} ma ygn snomja ma ygn nes`} 5?;;v ~ains ygn snmoa jl [nyns ygn Osney! Elyns ygn
S~vvmeav wnsn ‐RlTjsfni yj dj|n ajsyg jl ygn Ed~s cevma c} ygn Fgmanvn {snvnafn ma Deafg~sme ygn S~vvmea”v e{{sjefgni He{ealsjd ygn ajsyg ygsj~og Bedfgeybe eai elyns 5?;; ygn B~sm`v!—
9
[nyns ygn Osney ei|mvni ygn
{mjannsv ma ygmv snomja yj ‐v~chnfy—
>
 
Bedfgeybe eai ‐fj``nfy maljsdeymja ecj~y He{ea ma {sn{eseymja ljs fjddnsfn!—
<
Fjddnsfme` maynsnvy ma He{ea i~smao ygmv {nsmji wev sno~`es`} vyjbni
c} wm`i s~dj~sv fmymao e fj~ays} jl ‐~acn`mn|ec`n wne`yg—
?
 
ma f`jvn ‐{sjmdmy} yj S~vvme!—
7
Ygmv {sjd{yni
ygn maynsnvy jl ‐dnsfg
eay gj~vnv ma Vy! [nynsvc~so yj {nymymja ygn Vnaeyn ygsj~og Onanse` Csm~v ljs {nsdmvvmja yj ysein wmyg He{eaeai ygn
Nevy Maimnv!—
=
Sne`mxmao ygey ygn Vmcnsmea Fjddeai imi ajy efy~e``} ge|n v~llmfmnay maljsdeymja snoesimao ygn snomja ygnyves wev ei|mvni yj vnai e yned jl onjinvmvyv yj ygn Les Nevy ljs ygn {~s{jvn jl snfjaaemvveafn eai v{nfmlmfe``} 
ljs ‐lmaimao e
 weyns sj~yn yj He{ea!
5;
N{`jseymja jl ygn B~sm` mv`eai fgema fjayma~ni elyns ygn ineyg jl [nyns ygn Osney ma 5?3> {smdesm`} ljsfjddnsfme` cnanlmy! 'Heavna 5=7= [! =6- Ygn aeym|n {nj{`n jl ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv esn bajwa ev ygn Ema~! Yjie} ygnsn esn aj maimonaj~v Ema~ `nly ja ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv c~ynvymdeynv sn|ne` ygey vjdn 39;;; He{eanvn sn{jsy Ema~
‐eafnvys}!—
55
Ma eiimymja yj ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv vmoamlmfeay Ema~ {j{~`eymjave`vj snvmini ma Vebge`ma eai Gjbbemij! 'G~ivja 5=== [! 33<- Ma fjaysevy yj ygn Ema~ {nj{`nv jl Gjbbemij gjwn|ns ygn Vebge`maeai B~sm` Ema~ esn ajy wn`` ~ainsvyjji eai ygnms nygamf eai eaygsj{j`jomfe` jsmomav esn vym`` e deyyns jl vfgj`es`} inceyn!
‐Ygn jsmomav jl Ema~ f~`y~sn ma Vebge`ma eai ygn B~sm`v sndema d~fg djsn {jjs`} ~ainsvyjji ygea ijygjvn jl ygn Ema~ f~`y~sn ma Gjbbemij! … My gev `jao cnna evv~dni ygey Em
a~ {j{~`eymjav lsjdGjbbemij n{eaini mayj Vebge`ma eai ygn B~sm`v sn{`efmao js {~vgmao j~y ygn Jbgjyvb {nj{`n! _gm`nv~fg e dmoseymja gev }ny yj cn {sj|na my mv ygn djvy {esvmdjamj~v g}{jygnvmv! Yj cnoma wmyg ygne`ynsaeym|n n{`eaeymja ygey ygn Jbgjyvb f~`y~sn*{nj{`n jl vj~ygnsa Vebge`ma eai ygn B~sm`v
yseavljsdni ygndvn`|nv mayj ygn Ema~ f~`y~sn*{nj{`n jl ygjvn snomjav vnndv ~a`mbn`}! … Ygn B~sm`
 Ema~ ljs ned{`n fe``ni ygndvn`|nv bj~vgm 'Yjsmm 5=5= 66$69- e wjsi ygey de} ge|n cnnaS~vvmeamxni yj
ljsd ‗B~sm`
!
”—
53
 
 Ev S~vvme ei|eafni lsjd ygn ajsyg He{eanvn ysein wmyg ygn maimonaj~v Ema~ cnoea yj nvfe`eyn ma ygn vj~yg! Ygn mafsnevn mafjddnsfn
i~smao ygnvn }nesv gei ‐osei~e``} csj~ogy ygn Ema~ mayj v~cvyeayme` v~chnfymja yj ygn iemd}j jl Deyv~den!—
56
 
 He{ea”v
 nafsjefgdnay nllnfym|n`} e``jwni ygn Nij Vgjo~aeyn
yj djinseyn ygn Ema~”v fjddnsfme` ine`maov
 wgmfg ma y~sa mvj`eyni ygnd yjygn {jmay jl v~ch~oeymja!
‐Ev ja Vebge`ma djsnj|ns ygn Nij vgjo~aeyn elyns e `naoyg} 
5?7;v ma|nvymoeymja ~`ymdeyn`} ~v~s{niygn {jwns yj debn fjddnsfme` eai {j`mymfe` invfmvmjav sn`eyni yj ygn B~sm`v lsjd L~b~}ede Fevy`n eainaljsfni desmymdn snvysmfymjav ygey {sjgmcmyni Ema~ lsjd yseimao ma ygn B~sm`v cn}jai My~s~{ Mv`eai! Ygmv `evy dj|n vn|nsni ygn Ema~ lsjd ygn fjddnsfme` jscmy jl ygn Ajsyg [efmlmf wgnsn ygn} gei ljs eymdn vns|ni ev dmii`ndna ma ea ndnsomao S~vvmea ysein wmyg Deyv~den jllmfme`v eai He{eanvn
jllmfme`v!—
59
 
 _gey debnv ygmv {nsmji jl ymdn {esymf~`es`} maynsnvymao wgna ys}mao yj ~ainsvyeai ygn onanvmv jl ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv imv{~yn mv ygey mysn{snvnayv ygn lmsvy ljsdeymja jl He{eanvn vyseynomf maynay yjwesi ygn snomja! Ygn Deyv~den F`ea wgmfg oj|nsani Gjbbemiji~smao ygmv {nsmji
gei nvyec`mvgni e f`nes ‐imvvmdm`eymja {j`mf}—
5>
yjwesi ygn Ema~ `m|mao ygnsn ma jsins yj {snvns|n ygn mdeon jl 
6
 
JGNAN
 H~imyg8 Ygn B~sm`n Mv`eai Fjal`mfy! N~sj{nea ^am|nsvmy} \meismeae 'Lseabl~sy 'Jins- 3;;9! [! 9
9
 
 HEAVNA,
Desm~v C!8 Ygn Fedcsmion Gmvyjs} jl He{ea \j`! > Ygn Amanynnayg Fnay~s}! Fedcsmion ^am|nsvmy} [snvv Anw ]jsb A]! 5=7=! [! =6
>
Mcmi!
<
Mcmi!
?
 
@NAVNA
 Onjson E`neains8 Nes`} S~vvj$He{eanvn Sn`eymjav
Ygn Les Nevynsa U~esyns`} 
 \j`! 5; Aj! 5 'Aj|! 5=>;- [! >
7
Mcmi!
=
Mcmi!
5;
Mcmi!
55
Ygn B~sm`n Mv`eaiv Imv{~yn Fevn A~dcns 7 Ednsmfea ^am|nsvmy}! Rgyy{8**www5!ednsmfea!ni~*yni*mfn*b~sm`n!gydT '5;!;<!3;5;-
53
 
G^IVJA
 Desb8 S~mav jl Minaymy}8 Nygajonanvmv ma ygn He{eanvn Mv`eaiv! ^am|nsvmy} jl Gewemm [snvv 5===! [! 33<
56
 
 HEAVNA,
Desm~v C!8 Ygn Fedcsmion Gmvyjs} jl He{ea \j`! > Ygn Amanynnayg Fnay~s}! Fedcsmion ^am|nsvmy} [snvv Anw ]jsb A]! 5=7=! [! =9
59
 
 _E@BNS 
 Csnyy @!8 Ygn Fjau~nvy jl Ema~ @eaiv8 Nfj`jo} eai F~`y~sn ma He{eanvn N{eavmja 5>=;
 ‖ 
57;;! ^am|nsvmy} jl Fe`mljsame [snvv 3;;<! [! 5>>l 
5>
 
GJ_N@@
 Ie|mi @!8 Onjose{gmnv jl Minaymy} ma Amanynnayg$Fnay~s} He{ea! ^am|nsvmy} jl Fe`mljsame [snvv 3;;>! [! 59; 5<5l 
M
 
6
ygnms ‐cescesmea minaymy}—
5<
! Ygn snevja ljs ygmv wev ygey ygn F`ea gei aj ljsde` ‐`eai ma lmnl lsjd ygn Yjb~oewe vgjo~a—
5?
eai
yg~v insm|ni myv nmvynafn vj`n`} lsjd myv djaj{j`} ja ‐ysein eai jygns fjayefy wmyg ygn Ema~!—
57
Gjwn|ns ygmv {j`mf} wev ajyfessmni j|ns yj ygn B~sm` Mv`eaiv wgnsn evvmdm`eymja wev efym|n`} nafj~seoni ev e dneav jl nvyec`mvgmao eai fndnaymao He{eanvnvj|nsnmoay} j|ns maimonaj~v Ema~ ynssmyjs}!
‐Ygn {smafm{e` nfn{ymja yj Deyv~den”v imvvmdm`eymja {j`
mf} wev ygn Ema~ fjdd~amy} ja Nyjsjl~ ygnmv`eaiv ma ygn vj~ygns B~sm`v ygey desbni ygn cjsins cnywnna Nxjfgm eai S~vvme! Vgjo~ae` jllmfme`v gei{sjdjyni ygn evvmdm`eymja jl ygn Nyjsjl~ Ema~ i~smao ygn lmsvy {nsmji jl imsnfy eidmamvyseymja ev edneav yj vnf~sn He{eanvn vj|nsnmoay} j|ns ygn vj~ygnsa B~sm`v eai ygn snvy jl ygn Nxj
fgm!—
5=
 
C} ygn 5??; ygn S~vvmeav gei ‐fjd{`nyni ygnms {sn`mdmaes} n{`jseymja eai gei cnna ja e`djvy n|ns} mv`eai ma ygn B~sm` fgema!—
3;
 Inv{myn ygnms se{mi ei|eafn ygn S~vvmeav wnsn v
ym`` ajy n{`mfmy`} ewesn jl He{ea”v gj`i ja ygn vj~yg
nsa B~sm`v! Ygn} dnsn`} 
evv~dni ygey cevni ja ygn Ema~”v yseimao {eyynsav e dehjs fjddnsfme` {jwns d~vy `mn
vjdnwgnsn yj ygn vj~yg! 'Heavna 5=7= [!=9- Ygn G~aoesmea ajc`ndea Djsmyx |ja Cna}jwvb} `eaini ja ygn vj~ygnsa He{eanvn mv`eai jl Ewe ma 5??5! \ja Cna}jwvb} eae{{esnay nvfe{nn lsjd nm`n ma Bedfgeybe wev ygn lmsvy yj e`nsy ygn He{eanvn yj e {jvvmc`n S~vvmea {snvnafn ma ygn ajsyg! E`ygj~og vjdn djinsa vfgj`esv fjavmins fnsyema {esyv jl |ja
Cna}jwvb}”v
ynvymdja} v{~smj~v '|ja Cna}jwvb} mv e`vj bajwa yjge|n nd{`j}ni ygn {vn~ija}dv in$Cnan| Cnm{jvb eai Geacnaojsj- gmv {snvnafn ma vj~ygnsa He{ea eai gmv sn{jsyv jl ~{smvmao ma Bedfgeybe esn onanse``} snoesini ev gmvyjsmfe` ys~yg! Gn fedn yj He{ea cnesmao ygn anwv ygey S~vvme wev {`eaamao e dehjsjllnavm|n ja
Nxj 'Gjbbemij- lsjd ‐ljsymlmfeymjav ma ygn B~sm`v—
35
! E`ygj~og ygnsn wev `myy`n v~cvyeafn yj |ja Cna}jwvb}”v f`emdvygn} ‐cnfedn l~sygns imvyjsyni ma yseavdmvvmja eai snv~`yni ma e ojji ine` jl e`esd edjao ygjvn wgj `nesani lsjd ygnd!—
33
 '@navna 5=>; [! 56- Ja ygn jygns geai ygmv n{mvjin vns|ni yj vymd~`eyn ljsnmoa {j`mf} ygmabmao edjaovy He{eanvn mayn``nfy~e`v wgj cnoea wesamao ecj~y ygn {jynayme` jl ygn S~vvmea ygsney eai vyesyni ei|jfey
mao ljs ‐vysjaons desmymdn inlnavnv yj ygnajsyg!—
36
^ains Feygnsman ygn Osney ygn S~vvmea ei|eafn fjayma~ni
~aeceyni eai my weva”y
`jao ~aym` ygn Nd{msn eyynd{yni yjljsde`mxn sn`eymjav wmyg He{ea! Ygn lmsvy j|nsy~sn fedn ev {esy jl ea n{nimymja `e~afgni ma 57;3 wgmfg wev maynaini
yj ‐nynaiS~vvmea desmymdn fjayefy wmyg ygn [efmlmf Fjevy—
39
! Ygn fe{yema jl ygn n{nimymja Ambj`em Snxeaj| wev om|na e {nsvjae` `nyyns
lsjd E`neains ygn M ‐ljsde``} snu~nvymao ygn {sm|m`non jl ysein—
3>
wmyg He{ea e`jao wmyg e |esmny} jl ysmc~ynv invymani ljs ygn
 He{ea”v
s~`mao n`myn! Gjwn|ns gn wev bn{y wemymao ma Aeoevebm Gescj~s ljs e`djvy ? djaygv cnywnna Jfyjcns 57;9 eai E{sm`57;> cnljsn gmv jllns wev ljsde``} snhnfyni! ^{ja ge|mao cnna maljsdni jl ygmv Snxeaj| sn{jsyni`} sndesbni yj e He{eanvnjllmfme` ygey ygn S~vvmea
oj|nsadnay imi ajy wmvg ljs He{ea yj nynai gns mal`~nafn ‐cn}jai ygn wnvynsa nysndmy} jl Deyv~den!—
3<
Ygn 57;;v e`vj vew e fgeaon jl eidmamvyseym|n oj|nsadnay ma Gjbbemij wgmfg v~cvnu~nay`} csj~ogy ygn Ajsygnsa Ynssmyjsmnv 'B~aevgmsm eai Nyjsjl~ maf`~ini- l~sygns ~ains imsnfy fjddeai jl ygn Vgjo~aeyn!
I~smao ygmv {nsmji ‐{sjosedv jl 
vnyy`ndnay eai v~cvmimxeymja ljs ygn Ema~ ygsj~og ygn {sj|mvmja jl f`jygmao ljji dnye` eai sjei fjavys~fymja wnsn fessmni j~yma ygn gj{n jl vj`miml}mao 
 He{eanvn fjaysj` eai nsnfymao cessmnsv yj S~vvmea malm`yseymja vj~yg lsjd ^s~{{~!—
3?
Ma snv{javn yj
 He{ea”v c`~ay snl~ve` yj ysein
 wmyg ygn S~vvmea Nd{msn ywj }j~ao `mn~ynaeayv wnsn nafj~seoni yj fess} j~y e vnsmnv jl semiv ma ygn He{eanvn fjaysj``ni B~sm`v! E`ygj~og ygnvn seygns {e`ys} jav`e~ogyv wnsn `eson`} ygn wjsb jl snanoein vj`imnsv eai imi ajy
sn{snvnay ‐ljsde` S~vvmea {j`mf} 
37
ygn} {sj|jbni e fjd{eseym|n`} djsn vnsmj~v snv{javn! He{ea fj~aynsni c} vyeymjamao janygj~veai vj`imnsv ja js anes ygn mv`eaiv ma eaymfm{eymja jl fjal`mfy! 'Heavna 5=7= [! 7?- Aj fjal`mfy deynsme`mxni gjwn|ns eaie`ygj~og dehjs oj|nsadnay lmo~snv jl ygn S~vvmea Fjddeai ma ygn Les Nevy n{snvvni ea maynsnvy ma inlmamao e djsn {nsdeanaycj~aies} cnywnna cjyg fj~aysmnv ygnms {`nev imi ajy nafj~ayns d~fg se{{jsy edjao ygn He{eanvn! Ygmv csmnl n{mvjin efy~e``} vns|ni yj i~`` S~vvmea maynsnvy ma He{ea ljs e {nsmji jl ymdn eai ja`} ygn jff~ssnafn jl ygn LmsvyJ{m~d _es {sjd{yni e vnsmj~v sn|mvmja jl {j`mf}! 'Heavna 5=7= [! 3<<- Ygn snomjae` snevvnvvdnay ygey cnoea ma ygn 57>;vvym{~`eyni
ygey S~vvme fj~`i `nomymdeyn`} f`emd ‐ygn ‗wgj`n Ed~s snomja ijwa yj ygn Bjsnea lsjaymns ev wn`` ev Vebge`mna
R%T
!—
3=
Eyygmv {jmay ma ymdn S~vvme vym`` fjavminsni He{ea e `eson`} {nsm{gnse` deyyns!
S~vvme”v {j`mf} wev invmoani yj oseay gns
vyseynomfeffnvv yj ygn snomj
a ‐ajsyg eai vj~yg jl Deafg~sme—
6;
eai ma ygmv fjayny He{ea wev md{jsyeay c~y djvy`} jl vnfjaies} fjafnsa!My wev gj{ni ygey c} v{sneimao yjwesi Vebge`ma eai {~vgmao l~sygns mayj ygn Ed~s nvy~es} S~vvmea ysein wj~`i n|nay~e``} in|n`j{ wmyg He{ea eai Bjsne wgmfg fj~`i {sj|min ~vnl~` v~{{jsy ljs gns j~y{jvyv ma ygn ajsyg! 'Heavna 5=7= [! 3<?- Ma{esymf~`es ygn imllmf~`y} jl snv~{{`}mao ojjiv ljs ygn in|n`j{dnay jl Bedfgeybe djvy jl wgmfg fedn ygsj~og Vmcnsme lsjd
5<
Mcmi! [! 59;
5?
Mcmi! [! 59;
57
Mcmi! [! 59;
5=
 
GJ_N@@
 Ie|mi @!8 Onjose{gmnv jl Minaymy} ma Amanynnayg$Fnay~s} He{ea! ^am|nsvmy} jl Fe`mljsame [snvv 3;;>! [! 599
3;
 
 HEAVNA,
Desm~v C!8 Ygn Fedcsmion Gmvyjs} jl He{ea \j`! > Ygn Amanynnayg Fnay~s}! Fedcsmion ^am|nsvmy} [snvv Anw ]jsb A]! 5=7=! [! =9
35
Mcmi!
33
Mcmi!
36
Mcmi!
39
Mcmi! [! =<
3>
Mcmi! [! =<
3<
 
@NAVNA
 Onjson E`neains8 Nes`} S~vvj$He{eanvn Sn`eymjav
Ygn Les Nevynsa U~esyns`} 
 \j`! 5; Aj! 5 'Aj|! 5=>;- [! 37
3?
 
 HEAVNA,
Desm~v C!8 Ygn Fedcsmion Gmvyjs} jl He{ea \j`! > Ygn Amanynnayg Fnay~s}! Fedcsmion ^am|nsvmy} [snvv Anw ]jsb A]! 5=7=! [! =<
37
Mcmi!
3=
Mcmi! [! 3<<
6;
Mcmi! [! 3<?

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