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Even i technology holders do not make an eort to makethe multinational model a global norm, multinationalenrichment ventures o one kind or another seem tohave emerged as common practice among technology holders, with AREVA, URENCO, Angarsk, Silex andnow USEC all involving some orm o multinationalparticipation. At a minimum this trend should beencouraged.
Temodel o nuclear cooperation that the United Stateshas put into place with the United Arab Emirates willace considerable obstacles in winning acceptance by other states both in the region and elsewhere. More-over, other suppliers are highly unlikely to ollow thismodel. Tus the utility o this approach to prevent-ing the spread o E&R may be limited to a very ewcountries; the prospects o it serving as a more generalmodel are dim.
Suppliers will generally aceormidable public acceptance obstacles in trying tooer cradle-to-grave uel cycle services, especially ona broad basis, since they would require some coun-tries accepting spent uel or nuclear waste rom othercountries. However, suppliers may nd it possibleto overcome political opposition i they limit theiroers to assume responsibility or managing othercountries’ spent uel to those nations that have smallnuclear programs and/or are in regions o political in-stability or prolieration concern.
Tese eorts must be accompanied by strengthened international saeguards, export con-trols, institutional checks, and other non-technicalmeasures.
Diplo-matic interventions and interdictions have been themost eective means o stopping the spread o E&R(e.g. the United States with proposed German andFrench transers o reprocessing to South Korea, ai-wan, and Pakistan in the 1970s, the U.S. diplomaticinitiatives with proposed Russian transers o en-richment technology to Iran, and the interdiction o Pakistani transers o sensitive nuclear technology toLibya).
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Statements and views expressed in this policy brie aresolely those o the author and do not imply endorsement by Harvard University, Harvard Kennedy School, or theBeler Center or Science and International Afairs.