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Option B.2 - Proteins

Option B.2 - Proteins

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 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
Option B.2 - Proteins
B.2.1 - Draw the general formula of 2-amino acids
The R group varies between each amino acid.
B.2.2 - Describe the characteristic properties of 2-amino acids
All amino acids have the same general structure. They have an
amino (NH
2
) group
, and a
carboxylic acid (COOH) group
. The R group varies between amino acids, and can beanything from a hydrogen atom, a CH
3
group, etc. There are about 20 naturally occurringamino acids.The R group determines many properties of the amino acid: some are
polar
whilst othersare
non-polar
. If there is another COOH group in the R group, the amino acid will be
acidic
.On the other hand, if there is another NH
2
group in the R group, then the amino acid will be
basic
. The name 2-amino acid comes from the fact that the carbon with the amino groupattached is the second carbon in the chain. 2-amino acids are also called
α
-amino acids
.Amino acids form polymers, reacting together to make polypeptide chains. When we writeabout amino acids, we can use three-letter abbreviated names
for them, such as “Ala” for
Alanine.
 Zwitterions
Since amino acids have both a basic NH
2
group and an acidic COOH group, they can forminteresting ions, with both a positive charge and a negative charge on the same molecule, or
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
dipolar ions
. This is the result of an internal acid-base reaction
 
, with a H
+
ion moving fromthe COOH end to the NH
2
end.In addition, amino acids can react with both acids and bases, being
amphoteric
. This allowsthem to act as buffers, being able to resist changes in pH. This is important for maintainingthe pH of cells in the human body.
B.2.3 - Describe the condensation reaction of 2-amino acids to form polypeptides
When two amino acids react, a hydrogen atom is removed from one of the NH
2
groups, andthe OH is removed from the COOH group of the other amino acid. As a result, a watermolecule is produced as a by product of the condensation reaction.The bond between the two monomers is called a
peptide bond
, or amide bond. Themolecule shown below is a dipeptide - more monomers may react together to make muchlonger chains, forming
polypeptides
.
 
 http://ibscrewed4chemistry.blogspot.com/ 
B.2.4 - Describe and explain the primary, secondary (a-helix and b-pleated sheets), tertiaryand quaternary structure of proteins
Primary Structure
The
sequence of the amino acids
in the polypeptide chains. With the different amino acids,there are millions of possible combinations of amino acids, forming patterns that havedifferent properties.
Secondary Structure
This is the
hydrogen bonding
that forms between different parts of thepolypeptide chain. The -C=O part of one peptide bond may form a hydrogen bondwith the -N-H part of another.There are two main types of structures that form from this. The first is the
α
-helix
,when the polypeptide chain coils into a spiral. Hydrogen bonds form along the coil,between every fourth amino acid. As a result, there are 3.6 amino acidsper turn of the coil, making it very tightly coiled. Helix chains are moreflexible and easily stretched.The other is the
ß-sheet
, which is when the polypeptide chains form a stair-likestructure. This is made up of polypeptide chains bonds alongside each other. Theyare not as tightly coiled as in the helix. Hydrogen bonds form between each chain.These sheets are very inelastic.Some proteins have very well-defined secondary structure and are called
fibrous proteins
.These are tough and insoluble in water.

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