The Design of Low-area 32-bit AESEncryption/Decryption System on FPGA
Wattanit Hortrakool, AAI AlHarbiy, Ji Song, Xiao-Yang Ji, Yu-Ou Jiang
– In many papers, FPGA design for theAdvanced Encryption Standard (AES) Rijndaelalgorithm mainly focused on the high throughput thatis up to twenty gigabit per second (Gbps). While thereare few application need high throughput, instead, thelow cost and low area are more suitable. This paperindicates a 32-bit core architecture which occupiesonly 288 slices in Spartan-3 device and provide thethroughput upto 195 Mbps.
— Advanced Encryption Standard(AES), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA),Encryption, decryption, and low area.
This coursework objective is to design aencryption and decryption unit using the AdvancedEncryption Standard (AES) algorithm andimplement the system on Field Programmable GateArray(FPGA) board.National Institute of Standards andTechnology replacing propose AES of Rijndaelcipher algorithm on 2001. It is a new digitalencryption standard that replace Digital EncryptionStandard (DES). Moreover, it is a Symmetric KeyCryptosystem that means the encryption anddecryption use the same key ciphers. Thisalgorithm could use the 128, 192 and 256 bits asthe block ciphers size on 128-bit data block, and itis more flexible, security and effective in thecryptography .Recently, the low area consumption of AES areapplied in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN),Wireless Personal Area Networks (WPAN),Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) or other fields. Typically, AES algorithm with loop-unrolledand 128-bit data path is high-speed design, but theconsumption and area also remain high. Reducingthe data-path from 128-bit to 32-bit could decreasethe slices of area, thus the 32-bit data path isapplied in our design with 128-bit ciphers length.This paper is organized as follows. In section 2indicates an overview of AES. Section 3 presentsour the 32-bit low-area architecture. Theimplementation result and comparison with otherworks are shown in Section 4. Finally, Section 5makes a conclusion of this paper.II.
The Advance Encryption Standard is a round-based symmetric bloc cypher algorithm. AES usesa cipher key of length 128, 192, or 256 bits toencrypt or decrypt the data block of 128 bits .The number of iteration round Nr depends on thesize of key, which are 10, 12, 14 roundsrespectively. In each round between 1 to Nr-1,there are four basic operations which are SubByte,ShiftRow, MixColumn and AddRoundKey. Each128-bit data block called state. SubByte is anonlinear byte substitution, uses a substitution table(Sbox) to operate on each byte of the stateindependently. ShiftRow circularly shifts differentnumbers of bytes on the row of state. MixColumnmixes the bytes in the columns using themultiplication of the state with a polynomialmodulo. Finally, AddRoundKey is an XOR process,adding a round key from Key Expansion unit to thestate in each iteration. The encryption anddecryption flow diagrams are shown in Figure 1.
(a) Encryption (b) DecryptionFigure 1 128-bit AES Encryption/Decryption flow diagram.