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Published by MA Ahmed
Gas insulated switch gear : study,reports,and evaluations
Gas insulated switch gear : study,reports,and evaluations

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Categories:Types, Brochures
Published by: MA Ahmed on Jun 22, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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The GISoffers economic solutions for complex switchgear applications, e.g. in denselypopulated areas, for aesthetic town planning or under severe environmental impacts.Precisely speakingGIS leads to an effective use of a limited space. Due to the inherentsafety and compact layout of a Gas insulated substation, it is the best solution for substations which are to be built in restricted underground spaces.Since all live parts of GIS are contained in a metal enclosure, they are fully protectedagainst environmental effects, such as salt deposits in coastal regions, sand storms,humidity in the atmosphere, etc.; insulator cleaning is eliminated and, thus, high reliabilityis achieved.As the Live parts (e.g. buses and connections) are contained within earthed enclosuresof GIS and are inaccessible, as such it ensures maximum operator safety and reducedmaintenance.Besides that GIS meets with recent requirements for aesthetic compatibility withsurroundings. More over adoption of GIS offers an excellent solution for environmentalprotection since it helps in protecting the system from hazards.GIS is considered trouble free and maintenance free installation. However in case of anyfault the services of manufacture’s representatives are required to attend and repair thefault since all the modules of GIS comes directly under assembled form and in sealedcondition from factory since no technical expertise is available indigenously for repair andmaintenance of GIS. A manual on GIS will certainly help the users to understand a brief of GIS regarding the details of inside components of GIS, its installation process andoperation and maintenance of GIS. The preparation of manual on GIS is an attempt inthis direction it will prove be a guide/recommendatory document for the power stationutilities in the country.
The manual is a maiden attempt to consolidate information in a scientifically organized way,so as to engineer a document which should be available to user utilities as a “Manual” on gasinsulated switchgear and gas handling aspects. Document incorporates broadly: 
Check application of GIS at feasibility stage.
Propose complete data and rationalized specifications with techno economicprovisions on spares and effective execution.
Develop a GIS station which should give reliable service deliberating specificallywith reference to standard schemes.
User interface in engineering, quality assurance and testing
Consolidate gas handling, maintenance and testing related equipments/norms.
Considerations and decisions to be taken by users considering overall implications
High Frequency transients and their controlling measures
Provide list of updated standards and codes.
Emerging technologies.The manual shall also touch the options of hybrid switchgear available to users as a techno-economical solution under specific cases.Besides Technical Aspects, the manual shall also cover safety and training aspects. Themanual has been prepared taking into consideration the availability of information frommanufacturers, testing organizations, and users etc. This document is to be considered bythe user as a recommendatory document and customarization with respect to project specificrequirement is essentially required taking into account prevailing standards at the time of application. The gas used in the switchgear needs proper handling on account of environmental considerations. Normally the pressure inside the GIS is kept above four barsand liquefaction of the gas at this pressure could happen on temperatures below (-) 30
C.The application therefore should be carefully done in case the ambient temperature happensto go below this temperature.GIS internationally is getting acceptance on account of technical merits. It has excellentadaptability in meeting most difficult terrain or space constraints. The land area required for aGIS is in the order of 10% to 20% of that for an AIS 9(Air Insulated Switchgear) substationconsidering the switchgear bay, the saving in overall land area depends very much on thespecific voltage level and the connection to transformers, reactors and incoming and outgoinglines. If the substation is connected to overhead lines, then space will have to be allocated for tower and droppers which might reduce the total land saving, . Indoor and underground GISis possible even in urban and highly populated areas which will allow building of thesubstation at the point of consumption which will bring about significant cost savings in thedistribution network.. It is upto 220 kV level, transportation conditions permit factoryassembled bay which is most attractive and favorable feature for indoor & outdoor applicationalike due to very short erection and commissioning time. Reduced requirement of maintenance make them suitable option for most reliable operation. In fact qualityconsciousness of equipment alone makes GIS as favored equipment choice for remoteoperation. All these factors in totality make GIS one of the attractive equipment options toadopt.GIS is also considered for severe environment condition, where saline pollution near coastalareas of industrial pollution requiring regular cleaning of insulators and corrosion of metalliccomponents and electrical joints. GIS is also adopted when substation is to be installed atvery high altitudes or very low temperatures or seismic considerations and hydro station.
Initial equipment cost price of GIS is usually higher than that of AIS. There are many other merits/ considerations which need to be justified/ evaluated including the higher initialequipment expenditure. Therefore, the choice of GIS with respect to AIS is a techno-economic decision to be made taking into account technical, economical and environmentalfactors. The main advantages of GIS are as under:-Compactness/ Land requirementsSuitable for Mountainous zonesEnvironmental conditionsReplacement/up gradation of AIS due to growing power demandReliabilitySafetyApplicability to strategic locations.
Less area of land requirement
2.1Compactness / Land Requirement
GIS compact dimensions and design make it possible to install substations up to 550kVright in the middle of load centers of urban or industrial areas. This compactness of GIShas a direct influence on land requirement and land cost. Compact modular designs offer many possibilities in layout design and allow specific site requirements to be met ascompared to AIS. The land requirement for GIS substation (considering switchgear only)is of the order of 8 to 20 percent of that for an AIS substation. The savings in land areadepends upon the voltage level and the associated equipments like transformers,reactors and incoming/outgoing lines. The savings could also be maximized by usingcable connections and short length GIS trunking applications.In the case of underground hydroelectric power plants, GIS can be erected close totransformers or near the outdoor yard. A study of cost has to be made considering thespace availability, cavern dimension in considerations in terms of height, width andnumber of cables required for power evacuation system from the HEP. This is due to thefact that in EHV cables of small current carrying ratings cost is largely governed byinsulation requirements. Hence economy has to be studied on case to case basisconsidering a wide spectrum of parameters.

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