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Cloning and expression of bacteriocins of Pediococcus spp.: A review

Cloning and expression of bacteriocins of Pediococcus spp.: A review

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iMedPub Journals
 This article is available from: 
http://www.acmicrob.com
ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2011Vol. 2 No. 3:4
doi:
10:3823/231
© Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
1
Cloning and expression of bacteriocinsof 
 Pediococcus
spp.: A review 
Department of Biotechnology, PunjabiUniversity, Patiala-147002, Punjab, India.
* Corresponding author:E-mail:
Tel.:
+91-175-3046263;
Fax:
+91-175-3046262
Balvir Kumar, Praveen P. Balgir, Baljinder Kaur* andNeena Garg Abstract
Natural food biopreservatives have always’s remained the preference of health con-scious consumers. This necessity has led to the studies exploring better alternativeswhich are more acceptable, economical and safer than chemical preservatives. Bac-teriocins are one of such compounds produced by lactic acid bacteria which oera great potential to contribute in food, health and pharmaceutical industry. Presentreview focuses the complete biochemical, functional and molecular genetic char-acterization of bacteriocins produced by
Pediococcus
spp. A great deal of diverseheterologous expression systems have been exploited for cloning, expression andpurication of pediocins at laboratory scale but data is lacking for industrial pro-cesses. Thus, there is an urgent need to design low cost, industrially viable and con-tinuous system in order to exploit these natural bioactive compounds in food andpharmaceutical industry.
Keywords:
 
Pediocin,
Pediococcus
, bacteriocin, probiotic, lactic acid bacteria,cloning
Introduction
Lactic acid fermentations are deliberately exploited to pro-duce various products such as pickled vegetables, bakeryitems, wine making, fermented meat, sausages and culturedmilk products such as yogurts, cheeses, butter, buttermilk, ke-r, koumiss etc. Natural lactic acid fermentations are broughtabout by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) which includes a large groupof relatively fastidious, heterotrophic Gram-positive bacteriathat produce lactic acid as an end product of carbohydratefermentation. Core microbial genera of LAB include
Lactoba-cillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus
and
Streptococcus
 which are grouped together in the family
lactobacillaceae
. Their industrial importance is evidenced by their ubiquitousoccurrence in natural food products, Genarally Recognized asSafe (GRAS) status, and ability to exert health benets beyondbasic nutrition. LAB display numerous antimicrobial activitieswhich are mainly exhibited due to production of organic ac-ids, bacteriocins and anti-fungal agents [1-6]. Highly promisingresults are obtained in the studies underlying the functionalimportance of bacteriocinogenic LAB as starter culture, con-sortium members and bioprotective agents in food industrythat improve food quality, safety and shelf life [7]. Applicationsof bacteriocin starter cultures and bacteriocin thereof in vari-ous food systems are already addressed in a number of reviewarticles [8-11]. LAB is commonly exploited in the dairy industryas producers of avoring enzymes and metabolites that con-tribute to naturally rich avor and texture of foods. A variety of probiotic LAB species including
Lactobacillus acidophilus
,
L. bul-garicus
,
L. lactis
,
L. plantarum
,
L. rhamnosus
,
L. reuteri 
,
L. ermen-tum
,
Bifdobacterium longum
,
B. breve
,
B. bifdum
,
B. esselnsis
,
B.lactis
,
B. inantis
are currently recommended for developmentof functional food products with health-promoting capacities[12]. Health claims of various LAB strains include normaliza-tion of gastro-intestinal [13-14] and vaginal ecosystem [15-16],improvement of specic and non-specic immune responses[17], detoxication of carcinogens and suppression of tumorsand cancers [18-20], reduction of blood pressure in hyperten-sive patients [21] and cholesterol [22]. Importance of LAB intreatment of milk allergies [23] and improvement of mineralabsorption capacity of the intestine is also well documentedin the literature [24].
Pediocins: The anti-microbial peptides(AMPs)
Pediococci 
as saprophytes were rst isolated and characterizedfrom plants by Mundt
et al.
[25] as catalase-negative, homo-fermentative bacteria producing lactic acid as a result of sugarfermentation that can tolerate temperature as high as 50°C
 
iMedPub Journals
 This article is available from: 
http://www.acmicrob.com
ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2011Vol. 2 No. 3:4
doi:
10:3823/231
2
© Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
[26]. These highly fastidious, non-motile, non-sporulating fac-ultative anaerobes belong to family
lactobacillaceae
with
P. aci-dilactici, P. pentosaceus, P. damnosus, P. parvulus, P. inopinatus, P.halophilus, P. dextrinicus,
 
P. cellicola, P. claussenii, P. ethanolidu-rans
and
P. stilesii 
as the representative species.
P. pentosaceus
and
P. acidilactici 
are commonly used in the fermentation of vegetables [27] and meats [28].Anti-microbial peptides or bacteriocins are raised as an inte-gral component of the bacterial defense mechanism and havebeen identied and characterized in a number of prokaryoticorganisms. Bacteriocins have long attracted the interest of food sector as potential natural food preservatives againstspoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Pediocins produced by vari-ous pediococcal species have gained considerable attentionbecause of their remarkable heat stability, activity over a widepH range, broader antimicrobial spectrum; higher specicityand eectiveness in very low concentrations [1-3, 9, 10]. A largenumber of pediocins have been isolated and characterized tilldate.
Table 1
describes production of pediocins by variousPediococcal strains, class they belong to, association of theirgenetic determinants with small cryptic plasmids, their bio-chemical characteristics, mode of action and the antimicrobialspectrum.
Bacterio-cin
ProducerorganismClassMW(kDa)MW of Bac
+
plasmidDegraded byTher-mosta-blity(100-120
°
C)pHrangePolypeptidenatureMode of actionAntimicrobial rangeRefe-rences
Bacteriocins produced by
Pediococcus acidilactici 
Pedio-cin AcH
P. acidilac-tici 
H, E,F, MIIa4.68.9 kbpSMB74 Trypsin, papain,
a
-chymotrypsin,protease K, cin,protease IV, XIV& XXIVyes2.5-9.0net +ve charge;pI 9.6; sequenceis KYYGNGVTC-GKHSCSVD-WGKATTCI-INNGAMAWAT-GGHQGNHKCBacteri-cidal &Bacte-riolytic
 Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacilluscereus, Brochothrix, Clostridium perringens, C. botulinum, En-terococcus aecalis, E. aecium, E.hirae, Escherichia, Lactobacillusbrevis, L. curvatus, L. leichmanni,L. plantarum, L. viridescens, Liste-ria monocytogenes, L. innocua,L. seeligeri, Lactococcus lactis,Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Mi-crococcus sedentarius, Pediococ-cus acidilactici, P. pentosaceus,Pseudomonas putida, Salmonella,Staphylococcus aureus, S. xylosus,Yersinia
1, 36-43
Pedio-cin PA-1
P. acidilac-tici 
PAC1.0NRRL-5627IIa4.69.3 kbpRSQ11Protease, papain,
a
-chymotrypsinyes2.0-10.0net +ve charge;pI 8.65; se-quence is KYYG-NGVTCGKHSC-SVDWGKATTCI-INNGAMAWAT-GGHQGNHKCBacteri-cidal &Bacte-riolytic
B. cereus, L. biermentans, L.brevis, L. plantarum, L. lactis, L.dextranicum, L. mesenteroides, L.monocytogenes, P. acidilactici, P. pentosaceus
1, 26,40, 44
Pedio-cin PO
2
P. acidilac-tici 
PO
2
IIa4.65.5 MD
b
-chymotrypsin,protease I & XIV,trypsin, lysozymeyes--Bacteri-cidal
B. coagulans, E. aecalis, L. curva-tus, L. monocytogenes, L. mesen-teroides
,
S. aureus, Streptococcusaecalis
45-49
Pedio-cin JD
P. acidilac-tici 
JD-123IIa--Trypsinyes--Bacteri-cidal
L. monocytogenes
50-51
TABLE 1.
Bacteriocins of 
Pediococcus
spp.: their classes, genetic and biochemical features, mode of action and antimicrobial spectrum.
 
iMedPub Journals
 This article is available from: 
http://www.acmicrob.com
ARCHIVES OF CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY
2011Vol. 2 No. 3:4
doi:
10:3823/231
3
© Under License of Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License
Pedio-cinPC
P. acidilac-tici 
PCIIa-8.47 kbChymotrypsin,cin, protease,trypsinyes4.0-8.0-Bacteri-cidal
C. perringens, Listeria, Leucono-stoc, Pediococcus
52, 166
Pedio-cin SJ-1
P. acidilac-tici 
SJ-1IIa4.04.6 MD
a
-amylase,
a
-chymotrypsin,trypsin, proteaseXIV, papain,proteinase K yes3.0-9.0basic polyep-tide; pI in alka-line rangeBacteri-cidal
C. perringens, L. brevis, L. plan-tarum, L. leichmanni, L. monocy-togenes
53
Pedio-cin L50
P. acidilac-tici 
L50IIa5.25- Trypsin, papain,protease II, VI& XIVyes2.0-11.0net +vecharge; partialsequence isBacteri-cidal
B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. perringens, E. aecalis, L. mo-nocytogenes, S. aureus, L. brevis,L. plantarum, L. sake
148
 , L. inno-cua, L. lactis, L. mesenteroides, P.acidilactici, P. pentosaceus
54
Pedio-cin AcM
P. acidilac-tici 
MIIa4.6-Trypsinyes1.0-12.0--
 A. hydrophila, B. coagulans, B.cereus, C. perringens, L. monocy-togenes, S. aureus
55
Pedio-cin F
P. acidilac-tici 
F-4.469.1Many proteasesyesWideResistant to or-ganic solvents-
-
56-57
Pedio-cin CP2
P. acidilac-tici 
CP2IIa4.638.9 kbpCP289
a
- chymotrypsin,pepsin, pa-pain, proteinase K,trypsinyes2.0-9.0pI 8.85; resistantto many organicsolventsBacte-ricidal,Bac-terio-static,Anti-fungalandSporeinhibi-tory
 Aspergillus avus, C. sporogenes,E. aecalis, L. brevis, L. bulgaricus,L. mesenteroides, L. monocytoge-nes, Micrococcus avus, Neisseriamucosa, P. acidilactici, P. pento-saceus, Pseudomonas putida, P.aeruginosa, Staphylococcus albus,S. aureus, Streptococcus mutans,S. pyogenes
58-60
Pedio-cin SA-1
P. acidilac-tici NRRLB5627 
IIa3.66-proteinase K ,but resistantto trypsin,α-chymotrypsin,pepsin and pa-painyes-N-terminalsequence:KYYGXNGVX- TXGKHSXVDXBacteri-cidal
B. cereus, C. sporogenes, C. thiami-nolyticum, E. aecalis, L. brevis, L.bulgaricus, L. casei, L. curvatus,L. jensenii, L. plantarum, L. sakei,L. lactis, L. monocytogenes, L.innocua, L. mesenteroides, M.avus, M. luteus, P. acidilactici, P. pentosaceus, S. carnosus
61Bacteriocins produced by Pediococci other than
P. acidilactici 
Pedio-cin A
P. pentosa-ceus
ATCC43200,ATCC43201?80.013.6 MDpFBB61,10.5 MDpFBB63 Trypsin, pronase,proteinase K Heatlabile--Bacteri-cidal
B. cereus, C. botulinum, C. perringens, C. sporogenes, C.tyrobutyricum, E. aecalis, E. coli,L. monocytogenes, L. innocua,L. sake, L. brevis, L. plantarum, L.lactis, L. mesenteroides, P. acidi-lactici, P. pentosaceus, Salmonellatyphimurium, S. aureus
1, 62-66

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