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The subject corresponds to an item around which an event evolves
Pay attention to the last part of a sentence
There are three types of verb-like constituents
The noun in the sentence gakusei-desu is not the subject!
Japanese speakers avoid certain pronouns
“Noun” is an open category in Japanese
Do not hesitate to use the same verb over and over again
Japanese particles are postpositions
Classification of particles
A phrase particle determines the function of the noun
The particle -mo adds the preceding noun phrase to a list of objects
Use of -wa and -mo presupposes a contextual set
-ga is the subject marker; -o is the direct object
Do not attach -wa to interrogative WH-phrases
Only one direct object particle -o appears per verb
Two types of locational particles: -de and -ni
Three reasons not to use phrase particles
“Exceptional” uses of -ga
Grammatical reasons for alternations of particles
Certain auxiliary verbs take the non-subject participant particle -ni
Another consequence of the double-o constraint
Phrase particles are powerful!
Part 3 Expanding Noun Phrases
A noun modified by an adjective functions like a noun
The modifier consistently precedes the modified
Spatial relationships are expressed with stacked nouns
Na-nouns behave like nouns, but they have “fuzzy” meanings
To say something more complex, use complex noun phrases
One more way to create a complex noun phrase
no is for a familiar event; koto is for an abstract idea
Part 4 Tense and Events
There are only two tenses in Japanese: non-past and past
Special use of past tense forms
Te-forms connect very closely related events
Tense markers separate events
Events are tied with varying degrees of cohesion inside a sentence
Two perspectives for tense inside a subordinate clause
The main clause perspective means involvement
Part 5 Miscellaneous Topics
hai and ee mean “I agree” or “I hear you”; iie means “I disagree”
The longer and vaguer, the more polite
Polite forms and direct forms
Interpretations of -te-kuru/-te-iku
Expressing solidarity with -te-kuru/ -te-iku
-n-da expresses expectation of mutual understanding
There are ways to identify hidden subjects
Do not be intimidated by apparent complexity
Answers to the Questions
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Making Sense of Japanese Grammar

Making Sense of Japanese Grammar

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Published by: Pravin_it14 on Jun 22, 2011
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