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India 918

India 918

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Published by Albet Straus

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Published by: Albet Straus on Jun 23, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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 TABLE OF CONTENTS
 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS iFREQUENTLY USED TERMS iiAcronyms.............................................................................................................. iiGlossary................................................................................................................. iiI. INTRODUCTION 1Summary of Conclusions 4II. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND 11III. LINES OF AUTHORITY AND THE APPLICABLE LAW 27The Applicable Law 32IV. VIOLATIONS BY GOVERNMENT FORCES 35Extrajudicial Executions 37Encounter Killing in Mohali 43Encounter Killings in Kotla Ajner 47Other Incidents of Encounter Killings 53Disappearances 89Torture110Arbitrary Arrest and Detention without Trial148The National Security Act152The Terrorist and Disruptive Activities (Prevention) Act153The Terrorist Affected Areas (Special Courts) Act157Freedom of the Press167V. VIOLATIONS BY MILITANTS170Executions of Civilians177Massacre in Islamabad, Amritsar178Killings in Bhikiwind179Other Killings and Threats to Hindu Punjabis181Attacks on Journalists189Indiscriminate Attacks on Civilians.......................................................194Assassinations of Political and Religious Leaders197Kidnapping203VI. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS205APPENDIX209
 
 
i
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
 This report was written by Patricia Gossman, research associate for AsiaWatch, on the basis of research undertaken during a fact-finding mission to Punjaband New Delhi, India, by Gossman and James A. Goldston, an attorney, in November and December 1990. It was edited by April Bernard, Aryeh Neier,executive director of Human Rights Watch, and Goldston. Mary McCoy assistedwith the production of this manuscript.We are grateful to those in Punjab and New Delhi, who assisted us in our work, particularly the residents of Punjab who overcame fear and terror to provideus with information. We are especially grateful to our colleagues in the humanrights community in India, without whose advice and assistance this report wouldnot have been possible. The conclusions we have drawn are the responsibility of Asia Watch alone.

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