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A Diagrammatic Approach to Categorifying Quantum Groups II

A Diagrammatic Approach to Categorifying Quantum Groups II

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Published by: Lucius Gregory Meredith on Jun 23, 2011
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A diagrammatic approach to categorificationof quantum groups II
Mikhail Khovanov and Aaron D. LaudaApril 15, 2008
Abstract
We categorify one-half of the quantum group associated to an ar-bitrary Cartan datum.
Cartan data and algebras
A
f.
A
Cartan datum
(
I,
·
) consists of a finiteset
and a symmetric bilinear form on
 
[
] taking values in
 
, subject toconditions
i
·
i
{
2
,
4
,
6
,...
}
for any
i
,
2
i
·
 ji
·
i
{
0
,
1
,
2
,...
}
for any
i
=
j
in
.We set
d
ij
=
2
i
·
 ji
·
i
Æ 
. To a Cartan datum assign a graph Γ with the setof vertices
and an edge between
i
and
j
if and only if 
i
·
 j
= 0.We recall the definition of the negative half of the quantum group asso-ciated to a Cartan datum, following [6]. Let
q
i
=
q
i
·
i
2
, [
n
]
i
=
q
n
1
i
+
q
n
3
i
+
···
+
q
1
ni
, [
n
]
i
! = [
n
]
i
[
n
1]
i
...
[1]
i
. Let
be the free associative algebraover
É 
(
q
) with generators
θ
i
,
i
and denote
θ
(
n
)
i
=
θ
ni
/
[
n
]
i
!. We equip
with an
Æ 
[
]-grading by assigning to
θ
i
grading
i
. The tensor square
is an associative algebra with the multiplication(
x
1
x
2
)(
x
1
x
2
) =
q
−|
x
2
|·|
x
1
|
x
1
x
1
x
2
x
2
for homogeneous
x
1
,x
2
,x
1
,x
2
. There is a unique algebra homomorphism
r
:
given on generators by
r
(
θ
i
) =
θ
i
1 + 1
θ
i
.1
 
2Proposition 1.
Algebra
carries a unique
É 
(
v
)-bilinear form such that(1
,
1) = 1 and
(
θ
i
,θ
 j
) =
δ
i,j
(1
q
2
i
)
1
for all
i,j
,
(
x,yy
) = (
r
(
x
)
,y
y
) for
x,y,y
,
(
xx
,y
) = (
x
x
,r
(
y
)) for
x,x
,y
.This bilinear form is symmetric.The radical
I
of (
,
) is a two-sided ideal of 
. The bilinear form descendsto a non-degenerate bilinear form on the associative
É 
(
q
)-algebra
=
/
I
.The
Æ 
[
]-grading also descends:
=
ν 
Æ 
[
]
ν 
.
The quantum version of the Gabber-Kac theorem says the following.
Proposition 2.
The ideal
I
is generated by the elements
a
+
b
=
d
ij
+1
(
1)
a
θ
(
a
)
i
θ
 j
θ
(
b
)
i
over all
i,j
I, i
=
j
.Thus,
is the quotient of 
by the so-called quantum Serre relations
a
+
b
=
d
ij
+1
(
1)
a
θ
(
a
)
i
θ
 j
θ
(
b
)
i
= 0
.
(1)Denote by
A
the
 
[
q,q
1
]-subalgebra of 
generated by the divided pow-ers
θ
(
a
)
i
, over all
i
and
a
Æ 
.
Algebras
R
(
ν 
)
.
As in [4], we consider braid-like planar diagrams, eachstrand labelled by an element of 
, and impose the following relations
ij
=
0 if 
i
=
j
,
ij
if 
i
·
 j
= 0,
i
 jd
ij
+
 j
id
ji
if 
i
·
 j
= 0
.
(2)2
 
3
ij
=
ij
ij
=
ij
for
i
=
j
(3)
i i
i i
=
i i
(4)
i i
i i
=
i i
(5)
ijk
=
ijk
unless
i
=
k
and
i
·
 j
= 0 (6)
iji
iji
=
d
ij
1
a
=0
i
 
a ji
d
ij
1
a
if 
i
·
 j
= 0(7)
Example 3.
For the Cartan datum
B
2
=
{
i
·
i
= 2
,j
·
 j
= 4
,i
·
 j
=
2
}
wehave
d
ij
= 2,
d
 ji
= 1, and the relations involving
d
ij
,d
 ji
are
ij
=
i
 j
+
 j
i ji
=
 j
i
+
i
 j
3

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